Could I borrow your phone, please? The world has an interest in the safety of the objects stored in Cairo's Museum. An interest that supersedes the right of any conflict to imperil them for future generations. The UN should send blue helmets in to guard those treasures and arm those blue helmets. A thousand years from now no on will care about the cause only bemoan the fact that Egypt's treasures were destroyed in the early second millennium A. The Egyptians can sort this out any way they want but we need a mixed force from around the world to protect another Egyptian treasure, 10 million Coptic Christians would predate Islam in Egypt by half a millennium.
Did you go to university? But, no, McGee said, the belt wasn't the reason for it. Have you got a telephone directory? These include allowing the free-tradebenefits to kick in immediately - rather than Kiev having towait until all 28 EU members have ratified the agreement. Where do you study? Like other organizations, the NRA has also tried to derive extra income from its members by selling corporations access to them.
Affinity partnerships with various companies "have paid the NRA tens of millions of dollars in royalties," the IRS said in a court filing. How long have you lived here? However, despite these odds, NASA officials are surprisingly optimistic. And for good reason-never has the public been more interested in a manned Mars mission than now. What do you want to do when you've finished? My children are well trained and treat the furniture with respect, as they are very aware that some pieces might be borrowed, from time to time, for a photo shoot or an exhibition.
He arrived this training camp with a starting job awaiting him, and little need to prove himself.
Member of Senate Foreign Relations Committee. Could I have an application form? According to a source, Chris Smith, Toure' Murry and Jeremy Tyler appear to have the inside track on winning the last three jobs. Which could quite reasonably mean that you chose that bank rather than a competitor. On August 31, a year-old Syracuse University graduate and a year-old University of New Hampshire student died after taking what they believed to be Molly during an electronic music concert in New York City.
The deaths, and several other reported overdoses, prompted the Electric Zoo festival to cancel the final day of the concert. How much will it cost to send this letter to? It is tough. Can you hear me OK? Muirfield is one of the best golf courses in the world. The list of past winners there is absolutely amazing. We will discuss that next week. But Clinton, one of the most popular politicians in America, pushed for unity with the Obama administration, citing shared interests of the United States and the global community. Then she said MGM was infringing on her rights by continuing to market the movie.
How do you do? Astronomers regarded their existence at Uranus as not probable because the gravitational pull of bigger neighboring planets would weaken and throw out any Uranian Trojans over the life of the Solar System. The security element may represent a small improvement on mobile protection rather than a definitive solution, but the convenience factor is boosted substantially.
Workers living in the UK typically expect to spend 19 years in retirement but only have enough savings to last seven years. What sort of music do you like? Do you know the number for? None wanted to keep her.
Snu e a vida privada com Sá Carneiro
In one home, Inga says she had sex with a sibling who then urinated on her. In another, she says the father molested her. The league believes the evidence reflects a deep dealer-source relationship. If the Biogenesis products were legitimate, MLB argues, why were they so expensive and why were the transactions so secretive? When you Google stuff? Where do you live? Could you ask her to call me? But it facesincreasing competition on the continent from local lenders,pan-African banks and other international players targetingrising trade between African nations. It has long powered smartphones offered by industry giant Samsung, but has lately also benefited by Chinese companies such as Lenovo, Huawei and ZTE.
10ª Bienal de São Paulo () - Catálogo by Bienal São Paulo - Issuu
Do you like it here? Kotick's voting power amounts to What company are you calling from? No further details on the investigation or circumstances of the crash have been released. The crash occurred about 7 kilometers 4 miles from the airport. Can you put it on the scales, please? So they traded fourth-, fifth- and seventh-round picks to move up one slot for Richardson. At No. With Fox director Bill Webb and coordinating producer Pete Macheska deciding to let viewers follow behind Rivera, first walking, then running, in from the Citi Field bullpen, the drama was heightened. In recent months he has worked with Afghans even while he was wanted in America.
But this is a paean to plot that needs space for its retellings. Catton has also absorbed the feel of detective fiction, where almost every sentence is feeding the plot quite a feat at pages. At first it seems the 12 men are all being framed; the story comes to us second, sometimes third-hand. Most of the men are entangled, in some way, with Anna, the whore, who remains opaque until the end. How much is a Second Class stamp? He walked two hitters and hit two. Preston Claiborne started warming up as early as the fourth inning and eventually came in when Sabathia walked the leadoff hitter in the sixth.
After three straight games of passing for more than yards, he was 9-of passing for a season-low yards. Atkinson took the handoff, took advantage of a block and raced up the sideline for the third career TD run of more than 50 yards. Where do you come from? Internet, roads, banks, potable water, reliable electricity, cable and cell reception are all available and reliable.
The town does lack a large, U. Where are you from? The fact is that patients are paying less, not more, as a result of the [health law]. Among the dead are at least eight children, though others are believed to be trapped in the rubble, he said. Which team do you support?
The results Join the many successful people who have already used the system. Only reliable internet connection needed, no prior experience neccessary, that's why where are here. He came last year believing he would make a contribution, and not only did Rex Ryan never allow him to compete with Mark Sanchez, Tebow barely got on the field. He attempted only eight passes, rushed 32 times and was hit in the helmet when Sanchez threw a pass in his direction, which is closer than Sanchez came on many of his other throws last season.
He was also bypassed twice when Ryan switched starting quarterbacks. How much notice do you have to give? Mercer said this summer that it had five major employers enrolled but did not name them. Towers Watson is in the process of launching an exchange. So I might work for maybe one and half hours a day. But it will still work in my head afterwards," he said. Nabhan was suspected of building the bomb that killed15 people at an Israeli-owned hotel on the Kenyan coast in Proceeds are laundered through world financial centers and used to buy assets in and outside Nigeria," said the page report, entitled "Nigeria's Criminal Crude".
What's your number? Could I make an appointment to see? A great experience with a full stadium. In reality the majority of Brazilian football fans will be able to afford local tickets and I have no doubt stadiums will be full. Of course this is more expensive than a normal game, it is a premium event. However overall I see it being good quality and very successful. Will I get paid for overtime? The company, which derives more than 90 percent of its sales from North America, also has its sights set overseas. This year, the company plans to open 10 to 15 boutiques in Western Europe and Asia, notably in China.
Davis also saidAllegiant was buying evacuation slides in a bid to return planesto service as soon as possible. We will continue to strengthen cattle movement controls, increase our surveillance testing regime and invest in research into badger and cattle vaccines. I was totally in. It is usually the otherway around. The food magazine is a spinoff of the Allrecipes. Health advocates worry the devices have a potential to turn many teens into smokers of regular cigarettes.
Could you tell me the dialing code for? Topshop and Dune have great high street versions while Marc Jacobs offers us a more reasonable leather love option with his slick tote bag. Full story:. The same way it was run under the Emperors in its past. What do you do?
- This Place : An Anthology Of Poetry, Prayers, And Prose?
- quatre facardins, Les (French Edition);
- Translation of «topa-carneiro» into 25 languages.
- Finale De Dictée Inter-Écoles D’Adm Studios: Les Filles Dament Le Pion Aux Garçons.
- Policy Unplugged: Dis/Connections between Technology Policy and Practices in Canadian Schools.
- See a Problem?;
We are not really upset as we know Marina and she is a good egg. This was seen by her as a funny way to leave. General Assembly in New York set for Tuesday, Netanyahu is poised to point to what he sees as Iranian duplicity aimed at eluding foreign sanctions while entering the final stretch toward nuclear weapons. But defense lawyers dispute investigators' assertions that the suspects intended to join Yemen-based al Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula, widely regarded as central al Qaeda's most deadly spinoff. In Washington, D. Let's hope it listens very carefully to the dangers of not including 'sexual health' in the document.
Who do you work for? Invasions over chemical weapons, real or imagined, have a way of drawing out. What do you do for a living? When people areuncertain about what's going to happen, they sell first and askquestions later," said Michael James, managing director ofequity trading at Wedbush Securities in Los Angeles. Now we know.
He was building a new service from the database on up. But bouts of violencefrom , including a month-long war with Israel in , havedented hopes the country will escape instability any time soon. How many weeks' holiday a year are there? Nicks said he speaks regularly with Tom Coughlin. The coach said Nicks could return Tuesday. A native of Waterloo, N. Have you seen any good films recently?
So for affected players, their choices are: not play the game that they paid money for, or risk having their account banned. Will I have to work on Saturdays? Pakistan denied involvement and accused Indian soldiers of severely wounding a Pakistani citizen along the border last Thursday.
India denied the allegation. Its dozens of subsectors are grouped into four main divisions: industry, energy, infrastructure and cities, and health care. This is best prevented by taking a course of antibiotics and a reducing schedule of steroids at the first sign of an infection and using a Salbutamol inhaler three times daily. She might also take the bronchodilator drug Aminophylline at night.
To avoid any delay in initiating treatment it would be sensible to obtain a prescription for these medicines from her doctor in advance. A better, simpler, and safer system would ensure that banks get a good chunk of their financing from shareholders and would make banks responsible for assessing the risk of their assets. Your subscription will automatically renew at the end of the term unless you authorize cancellation.
You may cancel at any time during your subscription and receive a full refund on all unsent issues. Rightfully the markets have also been calm thusfar," strategists at Citigroup wrote in a report to clients. The world - and last-minute Christmas shopping - continued uninterrupted. What qualifications have you got? Members have agreed to pay freezes in the next12 months," Bob Timbs, a spokesman for the Construction,Forestry, Mining and Energy Union, said in a statement.
They are also remembering a recent accident here which killed two elderly people. This is just such sad news. Islam does not support killing of the innocent. Anyone who kills an innocent person has killed humanity," said a woman in her 40s who would only gave her first name, Zuleka. But if you want the high neck at a low cost, look to Miss Selfridge for this skater dress or River Island for a tribal-inspired twist on the trend.
August's reading was the highest since December , pushed up by higher sales and orders. How much were you paid in your last job? There also is risk to humans who handle tainted pet foods, especially if they have not thoroughly washed their hands after having contact with the food or any surfaces exposed to the products.
What sort of work do you do? Russian media on Thursday continued to report that it had placed an import ban on all Fonterra dairy products although that was denied by government officials in Wellington. Such a win would increase party complacency along with the number of MPs with ties to vested interests. The rest is locked as part of anagreement that allows Fiat to exercise options to gradually buyportions of the VEBA holding. Its supply chains are global, including in China. Would you like a receipt? A prerequisite to any seat is being a millionaire or if not already becoming one in their freshman year, enough is enough already.
Bring back sanity. This coup is similar to coup by general pinochet in Chile. Dr Allende was also popularly elected, kidnapped by the army and accused of various nefarious plots all dreamt up by the coup plotters and their Washington enablers. Project developerInvenergy will install three at a Texas wind farm this year. I just don't want it in my possession. I want to use the money to buy a jersey that reflects my pride in the Patriots.
Investors have piled into theblue-chip stocks for their high dividend yields and recordprofits. Have you got any qualifications? The Pirates came in hitting just. Clint Barmes smacked two doubles and drove in two runs and McCutchen added two hits as Pittsburgh went 5 for 13 with runners on second or third to continue its mastery over St.
Louis starter Jake Westbrook. He recorded a video on the significance of marriage before the Duke and Duchess of Cambridge were married at Westminster Abbey in April Do you play any instruments? Batista forced the ouster of his chief financial officer,Roberto Monteiro, on Sept. Monteiro, who had led negotiations withcreditors, also worked with Brazilian investment advisory firmAngra Partners, Lazard Ltd. What's the interest rate on this account? Who's calling? Have you read any good books lately? Why did you come to? Cook for two minutes or so to drive off some of the alcohol, then add about three quarters of the blackberries and three quarters of the peaches.
Turn the heat down to a simmer and cook the fruit gently for two to three minutes. Take the pan off the heat, then stir in all the reserved raw fruit. Most cans include two servings, and most of the boxes contain four. Calories ranged from as low as 15 per serving for a broth to per serving for a lentil soup. Eat this way and you'll take in fewer calories at your meals. How many would you like? They just want asylum, they just want to leave, at any cost.
Ninety percent of peanut reactions are limited to gastrointestinal, dermatological or wheezing symptoms. So we had three options. Shoppers DrugMart was a sitting duck," said Barry Schwartz, a portfoliomanager at Baskin Financial Services, which owns some ,shares of Shoppers. What line of work are you in? It looked complex, but students quickly got a hold on the medium.
After two hours of mixing, dabbing and, well, drinking, the byinch canvases actually looked pretty good. Shanghai prices were up 17 percent in September from a year ago,versus Food and Drug Administration approval in Bell said. Which year are you in? Aprior auction was scrapped in January, signaling the extent towhich confidence in Brazil has fallen. No new talks between the sides arescheduled, said the source who asked to be anonymous because thetalks are private. When can you start? What do you study? Can I take your number?
How do you know each other? And a new high of 40 percent of voters said it should disqualify him, compared to 23 percent when the question was asked last week. It quit Gaza in but has annexed the Golan - another territory affected by the EU move. Will I get travelling expenses? It was a breezy Bay Area night and 19 degrees cooler at first pitch than the 82 degrees in a game starting an hour later Saturday night. The original carpaccio was invented by Giuseppe Cipriani but it's not a Venetian dish. His inspiration was carne crudo from Piedmont.
There the beef or veal is sliced or chopped and is served with olive oil and shaved truffles. I've never thought parmesan was a good addition, and since the original carne crudo isn't served with it I think you can do your own thing. What's the exchange rate for euros? Thus, Oster suggests that you should actually be "more worried about gaining too little weight than too much. Where did you go to university? Get this Topshop number by clicking right or why not work the sports luxe look with another of our favourite styles below?
He hasnot yet received an inquiry from the RBI. His handle is "El Chapo" Shorty , but don't call him that to his face. And the Berlin mayor can block federal legislation. Glenn Murphy, an anesthesiologist and director of clinical research at North Shore University Health System in Evanston, Illinois, who was an adviser to Merck on sugammadex.
Could you ask him to call me? Modi's administration are still pending in the court of law, any revoking of the ban at this juncture would be seen as a dismissal of the issues concerning Mr. Modi's role in the horrific massacres of What's the last date I can post this to to arrive in time for Christmas? Experts expect hydrofoiling designs tolikewise end up on recreational sailboats very soon. Manning could face a sentence of years in prison. Military prosecutors had pushed for a harsher judgment. They called him a "traitor" and said his actions had helped the al Qaeda network.
But evidence of ticks, flies and other ectoparasites that infest the outside of the body has been scarce in the archaeological record until now. The only other known archaeological evidence of ticks comes from fossilized human feces in Arizona. Where are you calling from? He ruled the country for nine years before being voted out and then he left Pakistan to live in self-imposed exile in Dubai and London. A second man was arrested outside the palace on suspicion of conspiracy to commit burglary. Both men were released on bail.
It traces its roots to Superior Cable Corp, a telephone cable company created in , and changed ownership several times until it went public in Can I use your phone? He has a degree in zoology from the University of Oxford and has a special interest in genetics and medical science, human evolution and origins, climate change and the environment.
Lawmakers have discussed authorizing back pay after theshutdown ends, but it is not clear if that would apply only to"essential" staff. If it's in the Permian Basin, we can take it by rail. So we're connected everywhere and we don't get locked in. Renewable generation such as wind turbines and solar panels is being installed, adding power that's difficult to plan for and manage. HMRC acknowledges that it held information on its records about your pension and your employment starting in but failed to make proper use of it.
Could you give me some smaller notes? Thompson, 'Peter Pan' author J. Barrie and bank robber John Dillinger. Would you like to leave a message? Sahi, the state education minister. Three children were in serious condition. Could you send me an application form? They are the targets of drug sales people, quack doctors and psychologists, people looking for rich sex partners, etc. The rich who have less brains then money was and always will be the target of sales people. Wearable technology - from Google Glasses that flash information on the inside of a pair of spectacles, to shirts that can monitor heart rates - is already being talked about as the next big breakthrough.
Where's the nearest cash machine? Police found that alcohol had factored into that accident, which the Braves had said was the first non-medical fatality to happen at the ballpark. Whereabouts in are you from? Adults send mixed messages to children. We say to be honest and fair, yet, children see people do bad things and not suffer comparable consequences. Society is sending a message that if you are good in science, math, reading and writing, there may be a place for you in the future through a college and career ready path.
He argues that sending international forces to secure the arms would only narrowly outweigh a US strike. The country relies on foreign aid to feed millions of its people. More than 20 families and severalbusinesses sued the company, which settled for an undisclosedsum.
The deaths have shocked corporate Switzerland and prompted calls for greater support for boardroom highfliers. Patient who had undergone coronary artery bypass grafting developed saphenectomy's dehiscence on lower limb with edema and pain on the 15th postoperative day. Conventional treatment had been initially performed without clinical improvement. The results revealed granulated tissue, reduction of inflammatory process and analgesic effect since the first application.
In this pilot study, LLLT has shown a considerable role as a wound healing agent, through a new proposal for efficient, safe and noninvasive therapy. Objectives: To evaluate relief of dysphagia and apprearance of reflux symptoms in patients of achalasia cardia treated with Trans abdominal cardiomyotomy and anterior Dor patch. Study Design: Quasi experimental study.
Methodology: Twenty three cases were diagnosed to have achalasia cardia on barium swallow, upper GI endoscopy and CT scan chest in selective cases. They were treated with transabdominal modified Hellers cardiomyotomy and anterior Dor patch as an antireflux procedure. Relief of dysphagia and occurrence of reflux symptoms were evaluated clinically.
No patient had post op reflux symptoms. Conclusion: Transabdominal Hellers cardiomyotomy with anterior Dor patch is a safe and effective surgical option for achalasia cardia. Quality of life comparing dor and toupet after heller myotomy for achalasia. Laparoscopic Heller cardiomyotomy LHC is standard therapy for achalasia. Traditionally, an antireflux procedure has accompanied the myotomy. This study was undertaken to compare quality-of-life outcomes between patients undergoing myotomy with Toupet versus Dor fundoplication.
In addition, we investigated overall patient satisfaction after LHC in the treatment of achalasia. One hundred thirty-five patients who underwent LHC over a year period were identified for inclusion. Symptoms queried included dysphagia, heartburn, and bloating using the Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease-Health-Related Quality of Life Scale and a second published scale for the assessment of gastroesophageal reflux disease and dysphagia symptoms.
The patients' overall satisfaction after surgery was also rated. Data were compared on the basis of type of fundoplication. Symptom scores were analyzed using chi-square tests and Fisher's exact tests. There were no perioperative deaths or reoperations. The mean length of stay was 2. The mean operative time for LHC with Toupet fundoplication was There was no difference with respect to the incidence or severity of postoperative heartburn, dysphagia, or bloating.
Overall satisfaction with Toupet fundoplication was LHC with either Toupet or Dor fundoplication gave excellent patient satisfaction. Postoperative symptoms of heartburn and dysphagia were equivalent when comparing LHC with either antireflux procedure. Dor and Toupet fundoplication were found to have equivalent outcomes in the short term.
We prefer Dor to Toupet fundoplication because of its decreased need for extensive dissection and better mucosal protection. Os dias de trabalho perdidos por invalidez decorrente de dor nas costas foram calculados segundo atividade profissional. Esse valor foi mais elevado entre os homens e entre as pessoas mais velhas.
Reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome. To review reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome. We evaluated the causes of this syndrome, its clinical manifestations, and MR findings including the locations of lesions, the presence or absence of contrast enhancement, and the changes seen at follow-up MRI. Of the 22 patients, 13 had eclampsia six during pregnancy and seven during puerperium. Four were receiving immunosuppressive therapy three, cyclosporine ; one, FK Four suffered renal failure and one had complicated migraine.
Fifteen patients had hypertension and the others normotension. All lesions were of high signal intensity on T2-weighted images, and of iso to low intensity on T1-weighted images. One was combined with acute hematoma in the left basal ganglia. In eight of 11 patients who underwent postcontrast T1-weighted MRI, there was no definite enhancement ; in one, enhancement was mild, and in tow, patchy. CT studies showed low attenuation, and MRA revealed mild vasospasm. The symptoms of all patients improved. Follow-up MRI in nine of 11 patients depicted complete resolution of the lesions ; in two, small infarctions remained but the extent of the lesions had decreased.
Reversible posterior. Posterior Urethral Strictures. Full Text Available Pelvic fracture urethral injuries are typically partial and more often complete disruptions of the most proximal bulbar and distal membranous urethra. Emergency management includes suprapubic tube placement. Subsequent primary realignment to place a urethral catheter remains a controversial topic, but what is not controversial is that when there is the development of a stricture which is usually obliterative with a distraction defect after suprapubic tube placement or urethral catheter removal, the standard of care is delayed urethral reconstruction with excision and primary anastomosis.
This paper reviews the management of patients who suffer pelvic fracture urethral injuries and the techniques of preoperative urethral imaging and subsequent posterior urethroplasty. Pelvic fracture urethral injuries are typically partial and more often complete disruptions of the most proximal bulbar and distal membranous urethra. Full Text Available Objetivo: Analisar e qualificar a dor em mulheres de uma malharia do sul do Brasil. Posterior glenoid rim deficiency in recurrent atraumatic posterior shoulder instability.
To assess the shape of the posterior glenoid rim in patients with recurrent atraumatic posterior instability. Design and patients. CT examinations of 15 shoulders with recurrent atraumatic posterior instability were reviewed in masked fashion with regard to abnormalities of the glenoid shape, specifically of its posterior rim.
The glenoid version was also assessed. The findings were compared with the findings in 15 shoulders with recurrent anterior shoulder instability and 15 shoulders without instability. For all patients, surgical correlation was available. The craniocaudal length of the deficiencies was largest in patients with posterior instability.
When a posteroinferior deficiency with a craniocaudal length of 12 mm or more was defined as abnormal, sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing recurrent atraumatic posterior instability were Recurrent atraumatic posterior shoulder instability should be considered in patients with a bony deficiency of the posteroinferior glenoid rim with a craniocaudal length of more than 12 mm. Irreducible Traumatic Posterior Shoulder Dislocation. Full Text Available History of present illness: A year-old male presented to the Emergency Department complaining of right shoulder pain after a motocross accident.
He was traveling at approximately 10 mph around a turn when he lost control and was thrown over the handlebars, landing directly on his right shoulder. On arrival, he was holding his arm in adduction and internal rotation. An area of swelling was noted over his anterior shoulder.
He was unable to abduct his shoulder. No humeral gapping was noted. He had normal neuro-vascular status distal to the injury. The findings were consistent with posterior dislocation and a Hill-Sachs type deformity. Sedation was performed and reduction was attempted using external rotation, traction counter-traction. Post-procedure radiographs revealed a persistent posterior subluxation with interlocking at posterior glenoid. CT revealed posterior dislocation with acute depressed impaction deformity medial to the biceps groove with the humeral head perched on the posterior glenoid, interlocked at reverse Hill-Sachs deformity see blue arrow.
Progressive posterior cortical dysfunction. Full Text Available Abstract Progressive posterior cortical dysfunction PPCD is an insidious syndrome characterized by prominent disorders of higher visual processing. It affects both dorsal occipito-parietal and ventral occipito-temporal pathways, disturbing visuospatial processing and visual recognition, respectively.
We report a case of a year-old woman presenting with progressive impairment of visual functions. Neurologic examination showed agraphia, alexia, hemispatial neglect left side visual extinction, complete Balint's syndrome and visual agnosia. Magnetic resonance imaging showed circumscribed atrophy involving the bilateral parieto-occipital regions, slightly more predominant to the right. Our aim was to describe a case of this syndrome, to present a video showing the main abnormalities, and to discuss this unusual presentation of dementia.
We believe this article can contribute by improving the recognition of PPCD. Progressive posterior cortical dysfunction PPCD is an insidious syndrome characterized by prominent disorders of higher visual processing. Fundoplication after heller myotomy: a retrospective comparison between nissen and dor. A retrospective comparison between Nissen and Dor fundoplication after laparoscopic Heller myotomy for achalasia. Some patients received a previous endoscopic treatment with pneumatic dilatation or endoscopic injection of botulinum toxin that provided them only a temporary clinical benefit.
Changes in clinical and instrumental examinations from before to after surgery were evaluated in all patients. Clinical evaluation was carried out using a modified DeMeester symptom score system. Dor fundoplication treatment reduced both dysphagia and regurgitation severity scores significantly more than Nissen fundoplication pHeller myotomy followed by Dor fundoplication is a safe and valuable treatment.
The procedure showed a lower incidence of postoperative dysphagia versus Nissen fundoplication and a negligible incidence of postoperative GERD in a long-term postoperative follow-up. Surgical correction of achalasia using laparoscopic Heller myotomy with Dor fundoplication is argued to be the gold standard treatment for patients with achalasia. The goal of this technical report is to illustrate our preferred approach to patients with achalasia and to provide the reader with a detailed description of our operative technique, its rationale, and our pre and postoperative management.
Endoscopic Management of Posterior Epistaxis. The traditional method of management of posterior epistaxis has been with anteroposterior nasal packing. In order to avoid nasal packing, we started doing endoscopic cauterization in cases of posterior epistaxis. A total of 23 patients with posterior epistaxis were subjected to nasal endoscopy with the intent to stop bleeding by cauterization of Results after laparoscopic Heller- Dor operation for esophageal achalasia in consecutive patients. The laparoscopic Heller- Dor operation has been the procedure of choice for the treatment of achalasia.
However, because the incidence of achalasia is low, reports on the outcome of surgical treatment for achalasia are limited. In this study, the therapeutic results after laparoscopic Heller- Dor operation for achalasia at a single university hospital were evaluated. Between August and July , consecutive patients underwent laparoscopic Heller- Dor operation.
The therapeutic results after laparoscopic Heller- Dor operation were assessed based on complications, operation time, blood loss, postoperative hospital stay, and the standardized questionnaire for satisfaction by telephone or outpatient clinic interview. With respect to perioperative complications, lower esophageal mucosal perforation occurred in 14 patients, but all of them could be suture-obliterated laparoscopically. One patient was converted to laparotomy because of uncontrolled bleeding from the short gastric artery. The mean operative time was minutes, and the mean perioperative blood loss was 22 mL.
The median postoperative hospital stay was 7 days. Reflux esophagitis, which was seen in five patients, was treated successfully with a proton pump inhibitor. There were no significant differences in surgical outcomes by morphologic type and severity of esophageal dilatation; however, the success rate deteriorated significantly with progression of the morphologic type.
Laparoscopic Heller- Dor operation is a safe and effective surgical treatment for achalasia. Full Text Available It is presented the first occurrence of the late Pleistocene - Holocene mammals fossils in a gnamma-like deposit in the Baixa Grande municipality, Bahia State. The identified taxa were Eremotherium laurillardi Pilosa — Megatheriidae, Panochthus greslebini Cingulata - Glyptodontidae, Toxodontinae Notoungulata - Toxodontidae and Stegomastodon waringi Proboscidea - Gomphoteriidae.
During the inflammatory process some kinds of cells are predominant and are involved with pain production. Low power laser seems to be useful in the control of inflammatory mediators, but wide divergence in the dosemetric parameters leads to variations in its positive results. The aim of this study was to assess the use of the nm laser in the chronic joint pain and edema of Wistar rats submitted to synovitis. Sample was composed of 10 Wistar rats divided in two groups. Hemograma completo foi realizado antes do tratamento e a cada semana nas 8 semanas seguintes.
Overlapping sphincteroplasty and posterior repair. Knowledge of how to anatomically reconstruct extensive posterior -compartment defects is variable among gynecologists. The objective of this video is to demonstrate an effective technique of overlapping sphincteroplasty and posterior repair. In this video, a scripted storyboard was constructed that outlines the key surgical steps of a comprehensive posterior compartment repair: 1 surgical incision that permits access to posterior compartment and perineal body, 2 dissection of the rectovaginal space up to the level of the cervix, 3 plication of the rectovaginal muscularis, 4 repair of internal and external anal sphincters, and 5 reconstruction of the perineal body.
Using a combination of graphic illustrations and live video footage, tips on repair are highlighted. The goals at the end of repair are to: 1 have improved vaginal caliber, 2 increase rectal tone along the entire posterior vaginal wall, 3 have the posterior vaginal wall at a perpendicular plane to the perineal body, 4 reform the hymenal ring, and 5 not have an overly elongated perineal body. This video provides a step-by-step guide on how to perform an overlapping sphincteroplasty and posterior repair. Classification of posterior vitreous detachment.
Diagnosing a posterior vitreous detachment PVD is important for predicting the prognosis and determining the indication for vitreoretinal surgery in many vitreoretinal diseases. By biomicroscopy, the vitreous condition is determined based on the presence or absence of a PVD. A P-PVD without shrinkage has a subtype characterized by vitreous gel attachment through the premacular hole in a posterior hyaloid membrane to the macula P-PVD without shrinkage [M].
Stellar pulsation carries information on the physical condition within the star. While pressure modes p modes probe the outer layers of a star, gravity modes g modes penetrate deep into the radiative zone and thus carry valuable information on the physical conditions there. Therefore, these stars are important test benches for stellar evolution and pulsation theory. This makes them even more suited for asteroseismology. The CoRoT long runs offer a great opportunity to analyse a large sample of stars observed homogeneously, uninterrupted and long time base of about days, which is practically unachievable with ground based observation.
Since space missions avoid the scintillation caused by the Earth's atmosphere, they allow to detect stellar oscillations on a sub-millimagnitude level even for stars as faint as 15th magnitude. The photometric data is supplemented by AAOmega classification spectroscopy, allowing to determine effective tem- peratures and surface gravity. With these data a statistical approach was adopted to describe the pulsation behaviour gamma Dor and delta Sct - gamma Dor hybrid stars.
A temperature - period relation was found for gamma Dor and delta Sct stars, but none for delta Sct - gamma Dor hybrid stars, when considering their strongest g mode or p mode, respectively.
The instability domain of hybrid stars is equal to that of delta Sct stars and is not con- fined to the overlapping region of the delta Sct and gamma Dor IS in the Hertzsprung- Russell diagram. Hybrid stars behave differently in the g mode regime than gamma Dor stars, which poses a serious question on how to define properly a delta Sct - gamma Dor hybrid. The convective flux blocking mechanism is supposed to work for stars. Primary Posterior Mediastinum Hydatid Cyst. Primary posterior mediastinal hydatid cyst is a serious health problem for the Mediterranean countries. We diagnosed a case of a year-old female with a primary posterior mediastinum hydatid cyst on CT and MRI.
It was provisionally identified as either a hydatid cyst or bronchogenic cyst or neuroenteric cyst. CT guided aspiration with 18 gauge needle confirmed as hydatid sand. This is very rare in this population but it should be kept in mind when one is looking at any cyst in the posterior mediastinum. A fratura consolidou-se, resultando em um ombro normal e funcional.
A rare variation of the floating shoulder is presented, combined with a posterior glenohumeral dislocation in a male, 26 year old patient, victim of a motorcycle accident. On physical examination, he complained of pain in the left shoulder, limitation of should movements, in particular external rotation. True anteroposterior X-ray showed a fracture of the glenoid neck without joint involvement and fracture of the coracoid process.
Profile, axillary X-ray and CT scan confirmed the posterior dislocation. The authors discuss the features that make this case a unique case for which open reduction and fracture fixation with a pelvic reconstruction plate were chosen. Radiological follow-up confirmed recovery of the anatomy. The fracture healed and the result is a normal, functional shoulder. Dor aguda no joelho do paciente idoso Acute knee pain in elderly patients.
Acute knee pain in elderly patients is not uncommon, and is characterized by a sudden onset, no apparent cause, and by normal radiographic findings in most cases. The etiology of acute knee pain is the result of insufficient structures, and clinical symptoms are totally different from the symptoms seen in osteoarthrosis. This acute pain in the knee is always unilateral and in the medial region of the knee joint site with the heaviest load, predominantly in females after the fifth decade of live.
In order to consider the possible etiologies for acute knee joint pain in patients older than 60 years, its characteristics and treatment, the authors discuss etiologies related to acute pain: lesion of the meniscus, stress fracture, and idiopathic osteonecrosis.
Tecnicas de fisioterapia respiratoria: efeito nos parametros cardiorrespiratorios e na dor do neonato estavel em UTIN. Posterior fossa meningioma surgical experiences. Aug 27, They arise from the Laparoscopic Heller- Dor for primary esophageal achalasia: outcomes in patients. Laparoscopic Heller myotomy combined with anterior Dor fundoplication is the most widely-used surgical procedure for treating esophageal achalasia in Europe From November through May we performed laparoscopic Heller- Dor on patients Conversion to laparotomy was required in three cases 1. Five 2. Clinical results were satisfactory in One patient 0.
Lower esophageal sphincter pressure decreased from 32 mmHg median, range 93 pre-operatively to 11 mmHg median, range at one year follow up and residual pressure from 12 mmHg median, range to 4 mmHg median, range The good outcomes of this experience, in part due to careful adherence to technical aspects of the operation, confirm that the laparoscopic Heller- Dor is the gold standard surgical treatment for esophageal achalasia. As crises de dor interferem, sobretudo, nas atividades do cotidiano.
Variations of posterior vitreous detachment. PURPOSE: to check the relationship between pain presence in head, face, mouth and neck muscles involved in the physiological process of chewing function and in the lateral and posterior aspects of temporomandibular joint ATM and acoustical glottic source vocal measures. Relato de dois casos Posterior ankle impingement syndrome: a diagnosis rheumatologists should not forget. Two case reports. The ankle is a common site of painful symptoms in athletes and nonathletes. Posterior ankle pain can be the end result of several pathologies, and a diagnostic challenge for rheumatologists.
The posterior ankle impingement syndrome, also known as os trigonum syndrome and posterior tibiotalar compression syndrome, is a clinical disorder characterized by acute or chronic posterior ankle pain triggered by forced plantar flexion, which causes chronic repetitive microtrauma. Pathology of the os trigonum-talar process is the most common cause of this syndrome, but there are other causes, such as tenosynovitis of the flexor hallucis longus, ankle osteochondritis, subtalar joint disease, and fracture.
Diagnosis is based on clinical history and physical examination, and complemented by findings on. Full Text Available Muitas pesquisas conferem maior peso na alta declividade do terreno como fator decisivo no processo hidro-erosivo. A dor deve ser avaliada sob diferentes perspectivas para um planejamento mais individualizado e efetivo do tratamento desses pacientes. Endoscopic management of posterior epistaxis. A total of 23 patients with posterior epistaxis were subjected to nasal endoscopy with the intent to stop bleeding by cauterization of the bleeding vessel. Of these, in four cases unsuspected diagnosis was made.
Of the remaining 19, in three patients, the bleeding point could not be localized accurately and these patients were managed by anteroposterior packing. The rest of the 16 patients were managed by endoscopic cauterization. In one of these, cauterization controlled the bleeding while in the rest nasal packing had to be resorted to.
To conclude, endoscopic nasal cauterization is recommended as the first line to treatment in all cases of posterior epistaxis. This will not only prevent the uncomfortable and potentially dangerous nasal packing but also help in finding the underlying pathology. Low intensity laser therapy and functional orthopedics contribution in pain and temporo mandibular dysfunction treatment; Contribuicao do laser em baixa intensidade e da ortopedia funcional dos maxilares no tratamento da dor e disfuncao tempora-mandibular.
Temporo Mandibular Dysfunction TMD is a term used to describe disorders which involve temporomandibular joint TMJ , masticatory muscles, and associated structures, isolatedly or not, whose most frequent symptoms pain. Its etiology involve controversies, and among risk factors is Class 11 malocclusion.
Eighteen subjects were selected and divided in three groups. The application was in three points around the TMJ and in masticatory muscles: masseter, temporalis, sternomastoid and trapezius, on both sides when there was pain. Palpation was made before and five minutes after application and subjects answered a questionnaire with a score for pain evaluation. Group 2 received functional orthopedics aparatology Planas Indirect Composed Plates, and was evaluated once a week during two weeks, after palpation and following the same score as group 1. Group 3 received both therapies at the same time, and the first application coincided with the aparatology installation.
The evaluation followed the parameters of group 1. The results were statically analyzed , and in general form did not show significant differences. There was remission of pain symptoms in ali of the groups, and group 3 showed more rapidly results. Epidural hematomas of posterior fossa. Full Text Available Background. They are most frequently encountered posttraumatic mass lesions in the posterior fossa. The aim of this study was to identify clinical features that could lead to the early diagnosis of posterior fossa epidural hematoma.
Between and , 28 patients with epidural hematoma of the posterior fossa were operated on at the Institute for Neurosurgery, Belgrade. Clinical course neuroradiological investigations, and the results of surgical treatment of the patients with posterior fossa epidural hematomas were analyzed retrospectively. Almost two thirds of patients were younger than 16 years of age.
In 20 cases injury was caused by a fall, in 6 cases by a traffic accident, and in 2 by the assault. Clinical course was subacute or chronic in two thirds of the patients. On the admission Glasgow Coma Scale was 7 or less in 9 injured, in 14 injured, and 15 in 5 injured patients. Linear fracture of the occipital bone was radiographically evident in 19 patients, but was intraoperatively encountered in all the patients except for a 4-year old child.
In 25 patients the diagnosis was established by computer assisted tomography CAT and in 3 by vertebral angiography. All the patients were operated on via suboccipital craniotomy. Four injured patients who were preoperatively comatose were with lethal outcome. Postoperatively, 24 patients were with sufficient neurologic recovery. Posterior fossa epidural hematoma should be suspected in cases of occipital injury, consciousness disturbances, and occipital bone fracture. In such cases urgent CAT-scan is recommended. Early recognition early diagnosis, and prompt treatment are crucial for good neurological recovery after surgery.
Unsuccessful outcomes after posterior urethroplasty. Posterior urethroplasty is the most common strategy for the treatment of post-traumatic urethral injuries. Especially in younger patients, post-traumatic injuries are a common reason for urethral strictures caused by road traffic accidents, with pelvic fracture or direct trauma to the perineum. In many cases early endoscopic realignment is the first attempt to restore the junction between proximal and distal urethra, but in some cases primary realignment is not possible or not enough to treat the urethral injury.
In these cases suprapubic cystostomy alone and delayed repair by stricture excision and posterior urethroplasty is an alternative procedure to minimise the risk of stricture recurrence. Purpose: To compare, through a prospective, randomized and bilateral study, the effectiveness, safety and predic-tability of photorefractive keratectomy PRK and excimer laser in situ keratomileusis LASIK for correction of low and moderate myopia. Assessment of groundwater quality and contamination problems ascribed to an abandoned uranium mine Cunha Baixa region, Central Portugal.
The assessment of groundwater quality and its environmental implications in the region of the abandoned Cunha Baixa uranium mine Central Portugal was carried out from to Shallow groundwater is the major water supply source for irrigation in the neighbourhood of Cunha Baixa village.
Water samples from the mine site as well as from private wells were collected in order to identify the mining impact on water composition, the extent of contamination and the seasonal and temporal groundwater quality variations. Some of the sampled private wells contain waters having low pH risks. Nevertheless, this study indicates that groundwater contamination suffered a small decrease from to The bioaccumulation of toxic metals such as Al, Mn, and U within the food chain may cause a serious health hazard to the Cunha Baixa village inhabitants.
Acupuntura na fibromialgia: um estudo randomizado-controlado abordando a resposta imediata da dor. Prevention of posterior capsular opacification. Posterior capsular opacification PCO is a common complication of cataract surgery. The development of PCO is due to a combination of the processes of proliferation, migration, and transdifferentiation of residual lens epithelial cells LECs on the lens capsule. In the past decades, various forms. The ectopic posterior pituitary gland. Nov 4, Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain demonstrated a flattened anterior pituitary gland within the sella, associated with absence of the infundibular stalk and an ectopic posterior pituitary gland Fig.
Posterior ceramic bonded partial restorations are conservative and esthetic approaches for compromised teeth. Overlays constitute a less invasive alternative for tooth tissues than crown preparations. With inlays and onlays they are also indicated in case of full arch or quadrant rehabilitations including several teeth. This article screens indications and realization of this type of restorations. Full Text Available In La Goutte d'Or , Michel Tournier offers a critique of Western culture by constructing a novel that reflects both Jean Baudrillard's theories of simulacra and the political economy of the sign and Martin Heidegger's meditations on technology.
Tournier's novel explores the relationship between Heidegger's explanation of technology as an act of Enframing Ge-stell and Baudrillard's description of an economy based upon exchange-sign value. Thus, through La Goutte d 'Or , Michel Tournier depicts the violent confrontation between a symbolic exchange economy based on poietic acts and late capitalist economies of autonomized signs.
CERN Multimedia. Spectacular highlight of the Lake Leman sailing calendar is the annual Bol d'Or race. Held this year on 16 and 17 June, the event attracted nearly teams who competed under extreme weather conditions for the honours. The team was not only among the boats to finish, but also the first all-woman crewed single hull boat to cross the line. Robotic heller myotomy and Dor fundoplication for achalasia in a woman with morbid obesity. Achalasia is a relatively rare condition with a prevalence estimated at less than 0. Laparoscopic or robotic Heller myotomy is an effective surgical treatment for achalasia.
We present the first published case of a morbidly obese achalasia patient treated with robotic Heller myotomy and Dor fundoplication. The patient had a normal bowel transit on postoperative day 2, and he was discharged on postoperative day 4 on a liquid diet. We are on planet DOR. A group of scientists are working on an experiment, changing underlying mechanisms of transmissions of a colossus machine a complex system of gears and levers, wires and pipes.
Some of its mechanisms are also known as D for doctors, F for pharmacists, P for patients. Observers travel from Earth O efeito da hidroterapia na dor , qualidade de vida e funcionalidade em pacientes com fibromialgia. Valores que motivam mulheres de baixa renda a comprar produtos de beleza. Full Text Available Pain relief and reestablishment of normal jaw function are the main goals of conservative management of Temporomandibular Disorders TMD.
Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation TENS and laser therapy are part of these modalities, although little is known about their real efficacy in controlled studies. Treatment consisted of ten sessions, in a period of 30 days. Active range of motion AROM, visual analogue scale VAS of pain and muscle masseter and anterior temporalis palpation were used for follow-up analysis. Six cases of sub-tentorial haematomata one chronic sub-dural, four intra-cerebellar, one extra-dural are reported. Emphasizing the relative rarity of haematomata in the posterior cranial fossa, the author claims the necessity of complementary examinations for proper diagnosis, indispensable for adequate surgical treatment.
DOI: We find 11 different diagnoses among the 26 patients: pulpitis 7, leukemia 1, oropharyngeal tumor 1, atypical odontalgia 1, Eagle's syndrome 1, trigeminal neuralgia 4, continuous neuralgia 1, temporomandibular disorders 9, fibromyalgia 2, tension-type headache 1, conversion hysteria 2. After the treatment program all patients had a six-month follow-up period with pain relief, except the patient with tumor. Dimensoes da vulnerabilidade para as familias da crianca com dor oncologica em ambiente hospitalar.
Health-related quality of life after laparoscopic Heller myotomy and Dor fundoplication for achalasia. In addition to symptom scores, a person's perception of health and quality of life assessment is an important indicator of quality of treatment and can provide an efficient index to compare different therapeutic modalities in chronic disease states.
Only a few studies have investigated quality of life comprehensively in patients with achalasia, and therefore the controversy regarding the best treatment algorithm continues. The primary study outcome was pre- and postoperative quality of life in patients with achalasia undergoing laparoscopic Heller myotomy and Dor fundoplication.
The study is a retrospective, observational cohort. The hospital registry and the updated research database were reviewed to identify all patients who were treated for achalasia between and Patients were eligible for the study if they had a minimum 1-year follow-up and had pre-and postoperative Eckardt, Short Form, and Gastro-Esophageal Reflux Disease Health-Related Quality of Life scores. One-hundred and eighteen patients were identified. All rights reserved. Pain control in small animalsControle da dor em pequenos animais.
Full Text Available Pain is an unpleasant sensory or emotional experience that follows the application of a noxious stimulus. Can be experienced with or without the concomitant occurrence of physical stress signs, which occurs frequently in animals caused by trauma, systemic disease or surgical procedures. The control depends on length, where there are painful impulses and mental status of the animal.
There is a big difference between the rst two phases and the last one. Unlike the rst two, in the last phase, the city is not getting any in uences from bazar and instead is inuencing it in every possible way. Figd shows this phenomenon. Covered or uncovered, spaces of bazar, like the spaces of the city, are designed to limit the movement and reduce the speed Allain, It has to be considered that like the whole city, the process of formation of neighborhoods also usually started from bazars, so it was natural for the city tissue to follow the tissue form of the bazars Habibi, Thus here one can reach to the conclusion that in fact it is not the bazar which follows the residential tissues, but instead it forms the microform of that tissue.
It was necessary for the safety and functions of a bazar to have a complicated and irregular form, thus they never had straight and regular urban pathways, and even if they were built in place of a previously regular tissue, the form of the existing tissue was changed drastically to generate this complexity. It had its own sub structure of main streets and alleys, small and usually covered squares in the intersections and…. City and its bazar were integral. These parts were protected by gates and guards. This Similarity has resulted in three major aspects: 1- A thriving economy which usually resulted in the city to grow bigger, made it necessary for the bazar to grow too.
This growth could have been done gradually and smoothly by transforming the city tissue to the bazar tissue. A look at Tehran Bazar in recent time shows how the bazar has swallowed its residential neighboring quarters. As an example it can be seen in Fig that how a covered bazar in Qom has transferred to a gallery which the cars can pass through it. Figa also shows how this ease of changing the function makes it possible for the city to get back the space from the bazar, this phenomenon happens in cities in which the bazar loses its prosperity.
Sometimes this phenomenon was so fundamental that the bazar was the unifying element of the whole city. This phenomenon has been discussed by Pourjafar et al. Metamorphosis of the Bazar in the Modern period. One may think that with the growth of a city its bazar will grow too, but it is not happening in reality, especially in the cities which are getting a huge size. As an example one can have a look at Tehran. The city has grown and thus some places in the city have a distance of more than 20 kilometers to the original bazar.
The solution of the old Isfahan which was shown in Figb is not possible due to distances. So there would be a need to new shops and shopping centers which can work in the scale of neighborhood, thus raises the need for the new forms of commercial spaces which were shown on Figb. Due to change in the phenomenon of the city growth, now usually the new neighborhoods start from some residential tissue and according to certain development plans of the municipality, then the commercial zones start to develop, so these tissues are completely segregated from each other, and usually they are in form of some adjacent shopcity as organism new visions for urban life.
Figc shows a more recent tissue of the city of Tehran. It is obvious that there is no more harmony and connection between commercial and residential zones, the shopping centers does not include any other specialized buildings, so they are not connected to the residential tissue by any means, directly or indirectly.
But these shopping malls are affecting the original and traditional bazars too. In order to be able to compete with them, both in their area of in uence and in the whole city, and also due to the huge increase of the prices in the middle parts of the city, a huge change in the form of the city takes place. An increased part of the Bazar is destroyed and rebuilt in the form of the modern shopping centers. Figc shows this process.
In the initial phase of the formation of a city commerce and hence bazars, have a very important role. They not only can trigger the start of city but also dictate its shape and form, so bazars and old city centers have the same maze-like characteristics of an Islamic city. With the passage of time the effect of the bazar on the shape of the city decreases and the city takes the leading and shaping role of the commercial sectors, including bazars. Interfaces were categorized into four general types, some of them allow for the expansion of bazar in an organic way and some of them, including the connections to the residential buildings act as a dead end for the bazars.
Modern construction materials also change the face of city commercial centers completely, this change occurs in two ways, demolishing the old and building brand new ones inside the traditional bazar and constructing modern multi story shopping centers which are completely cut from the city tissue. Bazars were not just a place of distributing goods, but also a place of producing goods too, nowadays these activities are completely stopped and thus the original form of bazar for these activities For example in order to reduce the sound pollution is not needed any more, this has resulted in a change in the shape of bazar and eliminated the need to a maze-like structure.
In some cases this maze like morph of bazars used to function as a unifying backbone for the city, which has also been diminished, largely due to the size of the cities. These mazes used to contain some specialized structures like Caravansarays, but with the shift in the functions of some bazars from small vendor places -A brand new commercial space in form of the rst story of the residential buildings adjacent to the main streets has taken this role now- to the large amount distributor of the goods, these spaces have all turned to warehouses.
Bonnine, M. IV, Fasc. Habibi, M. Colin, coll. Gambling is a growing business. Most American states have some form of legalized gaming. It is a force and a pastime that permeates all human interactions. Speci cally if one considers that gaming is rooted in taking chances, in knowing the value of a wildcard, and in risking everything for one lucky strike. These acts, like game theory, which often deals with understanding competitive logics and outcomes between participants is how policymakers, city commissioners, speculators, citizens, bankers and others take chances and arbitrage land use in urban places.
Pairing gaming logics with urban design practices is alien to most urbanist yet the physical apogee of this synonymous is Las Vegas as it expands, stagnates, and shrinks according to gaming logics. It uses the history of the original and the fake, socio-political agendas, and its build scenarios to explain that SimCity or Second Life games nudge the future of urban design.
Gambling and game playing are growing businesses. Most US states have some form of legalized gaming; it is a force and a pastime that permeates all human interactions. We contend that these acts and strategies--like game theory, which often deals with understanding competitive logics and outcomes between participants and stakeholders--are how policymakers, city commissioners, speculators, citizens, bankers and others take chances and arbitrage urban land.
Our work, therefore, learns both from the historical development of Las Vegas and the simulated sociopolitical agendas of open gaming platforms like SimCity to make good on the idea that the algorithmic logic of the game and the category error drives the future of urban plan. The Logic. Pairing gaming logics with urban design practices may seem alien to most urbanists. Yet the physical apogee of this condition—the city of Las Vegas, Nevada—is quite familiar, even as its process of expansion, stagnation, and contraction plays out below the public eye.
In Vegas, envisioning the future of the city transcends traditional planning and city of cials. From its inception, Las Vegas has been enshrined in architectural and planning literature as an ad hoc con guration, a space of control both in terms of the private development of its built environment, and of the way that environment shapes urban experience.
Venturi, Scott Brown, and Izenour, A century-old enterprise, the city presents a situation symptomatic of most American towns of the late s and early s that predate urban planning as a professional practice: its growth emanates from private commerce rather than public or civic infrastructure. Reps, But unlike other present-day metropolises founded in the same period, Las Vegas remains an urban outlier. Largely free of comprehensive city planning into the s when a circulation improvement plan was proposed , today it operates in slightly accelerated terms of development: that of accentuated risk, speculative potentials, and centrally codi ed rather than coordinated central plan.
Such operative measures parallel gamers and game theorists whose strategic use of rules that purposefully diversify, arrange, and re-organize activities. Nonacs, In video game design, success depends on well-crafted rules, which in turn organize data, codes, and permit a completed plan of action. Game designers, like architects, begin with concepts, layouts, and speci c interface ideas to build characters and completed scenarios from the back-end. Conversely, game theorists, like urban planners, focus on the participants those playing the game , and in particular on their behaviors, or in other words, the image-forward personae of self-presentation.
Goffman, Focusing on possible player behavior helps game theorists and designers forecast a full range of probable scenarios, and in turn the consequent complementary strategies to yield optimal outcomes.
These gamers and game theorists are increasingly applying these procedures beyond game design—to economics, biology, sociology and evolution studies. Vegas lies outside familiar models of urbanism based on the Modernist city. It never needed diagnosis or palliative care to overcome city as organism new visions for urban life.
In fact, to the extent that Vegas has been enshrined in architecture and planning studies, its singularity is to be located in the absence of coordinated intent or design intellect in its urban footprint. Their goal was to collect real data as a means of urban study. Focused on the emerging American landscape of commercial sprawl, this form of urbanism was wary, precisely, of utopian perfections, and instead set out to document the characteristics of the city as it stood in the practicable present.
Rather than rejecting existing environments or mimicking a historical style to form a proposal or charrette, they accepted the commercial condition of the actual city per se as itself a lucid ends. Venturi, Scott Brown, and Izenour, Rather than looking to past conditions to judge or critique existing built environments, Learning from Las Vegas suggested that the experiential environment, rather than the plan, acts as stimulant for urban speculative action. Forty- ve years on, it seems obvious enough that Learning from Las Vegas provided a lens into the commercialization of urban design, forecasting the urban productions of the last quarter of the twentieth century.
More potently for us, it is hard to ignore that Las Vegas generated both a model for aggressive city branding and the cognitively disrupted image of the city skewered by nance capital in the twenty- rst century. Jameson, Casinos as both buildings and businesses rise and fall on the whims of global nancing, altering skylines, street names, and the uctuating status of service sector employment. Forbes, Not just single-family homes, but entire developments and neologistic regions of the urban palimpsest spring up only to fail to come to market. An empty lot, it turns out, may be more powerful and remunerative than its signs and decorated sheds.
The immaterial dynamics of the logic of data permeate and permute the physical city, its economy, and its political, and sociological behaviors. Similarly, the logic of gaming produces not physical results, but hypothetical actions and strategic behaviors. Here, in the absence of a strong urban plan, Vegas conditions contingent instead of coordinated behaviors of operation. This correlation relates gaming--the industry term for both gambling as well as video games--to the political strategy of game theory, in which realized outcome is delayed in favor of anticipatory strategy, or in other words, hypothetical behaviors.
Each participant, each interest, acts autonomously and strategically in her own best interest without knowing all the rules of the game to undermine cooperation or communication and maximize personal outcome. Behavior in game theory is complex, due to the range of variables and characteristics each player possesses. Such complexity multiplies when game theory is city as organism new visions for urban life. The issue here is that in focusing on the ideological trajectory of urban planning as it evolved in the twentieth century, we found a distinct type of urban development unfolding in the early twenty- rst, one that draws from game theory and experimental computational models of economics.
Reading The Strategy. The Downtown Project of Las Vegas [DPLV] is a leading example of what we believe to be the rst urban design startup implemented with strategies derived from platforms such as SimCity, and the interactive decision modeling of game theory. Currently in its manifold phase of development, the DPLV continuously reinvigorates its operations and seeks to generate urban growth through marketability.
Then he got to thinking: If he was going to move at least 1, employees, why not make it possible for them to live nearby? To transform the core of a city, as explained by gamers and SimCity designers, the player has to follow rules. In fact, Sims will walk anywhere as long as their desired destination is within meters.
So try to create self-contained miniature communities where Sims can walk everywhere. This requires the zoning of residential, commercial, and industrial buildings within close proximity of each other. The only downside is the pollution and low land value associated with dirty tech level 1 factories in industrial zones. But if you can promote the growth of clean tech level 2 and high tech tech level 3 industry, you can mitigate these concerns while promoting a pedestrian-friendly city. This is a clear point of anxiety for Hsieh and DPLV, a problem both attempt to address as an issue of quanti ed metrics—rules and codes that could anticipate and optimize the result of the game.
Potential investors become potential players, the range of their possible actions charted as hypothetical outcomes. York in Hsieh invested in the retailer and says Bronstein comes to Vegas one week every month. That works out to 2. If not, we can say no without judging the quality of the idea. The Playoffs. The analogy of gaming and DPLV is fragile in its temporality: games are resolved in a matter of hours or days, and urban planning takes time.
Human interactions and cities are not forged immediately, rather the characteristics of sustainable community building are decades in the making, and more organic than mathematical. Jacobs, Our initial--and still limited--study of DPLV shows that the production of scenarios from the perspective of game theorist has potential for future urban planning trajectories, yet in practice is a tool of economic speculators, whose interest in fast-tracking and ipping developments has more in common with start-up culture. As the game theory culture of the start-up is applied to re-developing cities and towns across the globe, planners, builders, and civic stakeholders must strategically calibrate methods for taking chances, developing networking relationships with real planners, data driven computer scientists and politicians—all of whom have dif culties with long term commitments, assisting citizens and taking smart risks to advance the characteristics of emerging sustainable urban practices.
Game theory is a practical contender for sustainable urban practices to improve, as long as it does not remain primarily in the realm of economic speculation. Game theorists, like urban planners, focus on participants [those playing out the game], and in particular on their behaviors. This interpellated focus on potentiality and behavior creates gaming, and urbanism, as a vetted practice of hypotheses—an experiment in cities with the dimensions of the laboratory. Game theory needs time to test and improve strategies; cities need time for similar reasons.
In the case of DPLV, a half-decade is insuf cient to imagine a developed community, yet has been suf cient to produce a new scenario for urbanism: the territorial campus geared toward land arbitrage. Prices in downtown Vegas are skyrocketing, as families and elders swiftly evacuate the zone. Allen, S. Coolican, P. Goffman, E. Jacobs, J. Jameson, F. Knight, D. Abstract Small cities in Spain between 50 and This process that started earlier in large Spanish cities has only taken place during the last urban development economic cycle in the small ones at a very relevant speed.
The paper analyses the single-family housing developments at Toledo and its surrounding municipalities. It studies their morphology, showing their neat differences and suggesting that they cannot be just identi ed as single-family urban developments. Consequently, the paper suggests a taxonomy of these urban areas according to their origin, urban location and type of rationale. The paper presents maps and spatial data of the different single family homes areas of Toledo. Research on urban morphology in Spain was synthesised by Vilagrasa In Sola-Morales proposed an urban growth morphology model Formas de Crecimiento Urbano for the Spanish metropolises mainly Barcelona , which has been used profusely by Spanish scholars.
He suggested ten urban growth morphologies Figure 1 : -Historic core, -Absorbed villages, -Ensanches, -Peripheral lot subdivisions -Industry and industrial colonies, -Garden cities and suburban single-family habitats, -Marginal infrahousing areas, -High-rise detached apartment building areas , -Industrial states, -Big Community services and -Big infrastructures. Some years later, scholars have added four other recent urban growth morphologies: -Production and thematic parks, -New ensanches, -Commercial centres and headquarters areas and -Diffuse urbanization. Spanish small cities between 50 and The role of single-family habitats in the new components of this new model is very relevant.
Literature Review. Nevertheless, their morphologies have not been the purpose of recent research. Gated communities either single-family or condominiums are not recent, their rst evidences appear during second half of the XIX century. Billard, et. There is consciousness about their relative im-. Urban Growth Morphologies proposed by Sola-Morales for Barcelona city as organism new visions for urban life. These are studies on factors that encourage residential location change, such as age, socio-professional structure, family size, etc.
Nevertheless, the study of single-family environments has had little attention. Empirical Study —Toledo- and Methodology. The empirical study methodological sequence is composed of four phases: i. Cartography differentiated lots, buildings and public spaces streets, parks, etc. Toledo municipality is located 70 km south of Madrid, has On top, as many other small Spanish cities, Toledo has recently become a sub-regional city articulated with the surrounding municipalities and this incorporates two other types of areas one already existing in Toledo.
Trial and error process lead to 11 case studies nine were studied in and two in Initially, this area was not surrounded by other urban areas, but some years later the urban expansion reached it see Figures 3. Nevertheless its irregular perimeter, consequence of its smaller size than planned and the security distance from the factory, this single-family area has a regular pattern and an interesting urban structure, together with an important supply of public facilities pricity as organism new visions for urban life. This mostly semi-detached area has a medium size average lot of m2, most with a similar size, although they reproduce the socio-professional factory segregation with different building sizes, its internal streets are narrow, 6 m.
Small zones inside the dense urban area expand the urban area besides what is already urbanized and adapt to the existing surrounding spatial order. Two subtypes are found: early self-built or informal developments and modern ones see Figures 3. Sixty years later, most are becoming more central and redeveloped. In some cases their morphology was the originating one of new suburbs, along existing paths with ribbon or tree-shape forms and in other cases resulting from small subdivisions with regular geometry. These areas lacked urban structure, street pavement, utilities and public facilities, which in most cases were added later.
Most buildings consisted only of ground level, were very simple and small, with very low building quality partly derived from selfbuilding. Plot size is very small, most of it built initially or later on facing the streets. Nowadays about half of its 70 m2 plots have already been demolished for redeveloped grey area in Figure 4 , by substituting a few of these houses by 3 to 4 oors apartment buildings without enlarging streets and multiplying by 5 the total building oor. Row houses with small plots and very small gardens. Their advantage is being besides dense urban areas with abundant private and public facilities.
Their layout is similar and adjusts to the built up and road edges. The available facilities are small, since they have to serve also the adjacent dense areas, with substantial differences between them. These new single-family developments, spatially and functionally strongly relying on historic settlements, are of a reduced size, and the resulting shape is a juxtaposition of different patterns see Figures 3.
Two sub-typologies can be distinguished: expanding and transforming the historic morphology. In the rst ones, the historic settlement initial layout maintains it preponderance, with the new developments adapting to it, while in the second ones, the layout of new developments predominates and changes the overall urban shape. In these second cases developments are normally bigger in size and provide greater green zones and public facilities than the rst sub-type ones.
Average plot is m2, with detached plot average of m2 and row houses of m2. The layout of the new developments is based on the traditional blocks formed by crossroads and tangential roads and a few slightly more distant rectangular forms. None of these new developments provide relevant new public spaces or facilities. The percentage of row houses and apartments are a sign that developers have played a major role, while in other cases their role nishes in selling the plots.
The average plot is m2, with m2 for detached ones, m2 for semi-detached and m2 for row houses. The nal layout is again based in the existing roads but with so many additions that a new order prevails. They are spatially bigger developments than the previous ones, due to the land property they are located at and to reach a certain size which allows for survival i. Their location and characteristics try to improve their attraction capacity and economic value.
They were often built as gated communities and in some cases they are now open, having transferred the property of roads and green areas to municipalities. They are predominantly composed by big detached houses and plots, often above m2 between and 4. Reversely, most of them dedicate very little land surface to the street network the land is for big private plots. Four subtypes have been found. The prices are always higher than those besides the villages and smaller than those inside the Toledo dense built-up area.
Exceptionally they include some industrial uses. It is a Has development of detached houses over big plots average of 1. Their main concern is the division into big lots with no relevant urban structure or public facilities. Forth, Developments based on the creation of new spatial amenities are relevant at urban areas and also at touristic ones, in many cases are gated communities, to control de access to the residential area and the new created amenities, and their urban structure is strongly linked to the new amenities.
The study of single-family habitats at Toledo, as representative of small Spanish cities at intermediate distances from and in uenced by metropolises, leads to the four following conclusions. Previously they were generated besides major factories or by the adjacent suburban areas, representing two very different morphologies.
One industrial based new villages cultured and with public facilities, the second only interested in producing cheap suburban housing. Social segregation. Single-family habitats are designed to facilitate or as a consequence of social segregation. Detached big plots areas or gated communities with their facilities are reserved for high classes, while small plots row houses are open to middle and mixed classes.
Single-family habitats show two double extremes. Those developments that provide facilities and urban structure, and those mainly interested in an ef cient land subdivision. Both of them take place both for high and low classes prices. Varied urban morphology. Public facilities, green zones and street network are key elements of their urban morphology, with a few exceptions, while land subdivision is much more so.
In many cases, public areas are a requirement but without main references, diluted and without identity, due to the requirement of single-family blocks and their territorial location. The exceptions being the Industrial based villages and those based on the creation of new amenities. Nevertheless, their rationale differs, with the rst ones trying to generate an interesting and cultured urban area, the second ones are totally conditioned by the requirements of the new amenity and the control of access.
In most disconnected cases, plots are an expression of nature privatization, and thus public green areas as a way to publicly use nature is not demanded by inhabitants and thus becomes a marginal element. In summary, the main characteristics of each type are as follows: city as organism new visions for urban life.
Industrial based habitats are characterised by their cultured structure, their small plot and street size and their amount of public facilities. These developments ap pear early even before the study period and are soon discontinued. Small zones inside dense urban areas have two different characteristics and periods. Earlier ones are self-built, lack almost everything and at present are intensely redeveloped.
Recent ones have edge type layouts and the legal required facilities and green zones, with design being more relevant than in most other recent types. The addition of Incremental expansions adjacent to villages, depending on their comparative surface relevance, may or may not change the traditional overall village morphology. Disconnected developments are the most peculiar are based on the privatization of nature and the production of new amenities. Four sub-types have been distinguished based on their production procedure and attraction factors.
Each sub-type present different urban structures. Billard, G. Brandis, D. Madrid Campos, M. Vestigios de un Urbanismo Socio Industrial en el Toledo actual. Cruz, L.
Synonyms and antonyms of topa-carneiro in the Portuguese dictionary of synonyms
De Pablos, J. Space, Populations, Societies 1, Fedrani, J. El caso del partido de La Plata, Geogra cando 5, Ministerio de la Vivienda, Madrid. Leal, J. Comunidad de Madrid, Madrid. CCCB, Barcelona Urban 9, Naredo, J. Siglo XXI, Madrid. Pereira, S. Sposito, M. Susino, J.
Girona Centro de Estudios Andaluces. Ministerio de Vivienda. Vilagrasa, J. A new design philosophy is based on the contemporary condition that allows architects to manage complex-systems science as a tool for the development of the project. Conventional analytical - reductionist - methodology is supported and sometime substituted by non-linear processes, including computer aided software.
The potentiality of this methodology is that of creating a city that will be as natural as a spontaneously generated as a living organism. The purpose is to discover ways of making cities and architecture that provide better solutions to problems at the same time offering greater freedom to the imagination. A test case for Induction design methodology in a selected suburban area of Rome is foreseen.
Apart from those cities designed starting from a precise geometrical gure in plan, as in the city of Palmanova, the fortress-city built at the end of the 16th century in the Republic of Venice with the form of a nine-pointed star, or other famous Italian cities founded, above all, during the Renaissance, or else those squared new towns typical of the New World, most part of these cities are seemingly spontaneously generated just like biological organisms, self-organized according to physical conditions, supporting the particular orography, and determining the shape of the blocks and of the buildings upon geographical settings and climatic necessities or similar natural aspects.
What makes for example - Palmanova different from the squared new towns, even if geometrically set in an abstract gure, is an increased degree of complexity of the geometry. In fact the complexity is exactly the characteristics of almost all the living organisms. That is: it is easy to rich a form from a formula. Not a formula from a form.
Related Snu e a Vida Privada com Sá Carneiro (Portuguese Edition)
Copyright 2019 - All Right Reserved