However, coaching is considered to have great possibilities as a professional career in the near future Brock as cited in Krapu, If we go back to ancient Greece, philosophers such as Socrates performed similar practices to what North American, European, and Latin American coaches have performed so far. It means that coaching has emerged from contributions of different practitioners who, in some cases, have come from academic and non-academic settings Brock as cited in Krapu, Socrates, for example, used questions among his followers, and that is a particular practice in coaching.
In the Goal stage, coachees set short and long term goals. To examine the Reality , it is indispensable to explore the situation at the present time. Options refer to the different possibilities the coachee has and the strategies that he or she can use. What involves the actions, the performers, the commitment, and the will to achieve what has been set.
Both Clutterbuck and Goldvarg and Perel de Goldvarg as well as Whitmore agree that coaching happens in conversations. All of them also concur that a coaching session is performed with a coach and a coachee, the two main characters in a coaching session. Lozano Correa emphasizes that every professional should go deep inside himself or herself to find his or her real self. It is an activity that is developed between a coach and a coachee. In addition, she lists three types of coaching: personal coaching, business coaching, and coaching for education.
Business coaching is developed in three steps. In the first step, the coach helps the coachee identify improvement opportunities. On the third and last step, the coachee commits to actions. It is a person who has technical expertise, knowledge, and experience, which is the foundation to gain credibility and authority pp. With the questions, coaches can ask themselves about their performance at the beginning of the process when they meet the coachee, and about their practice during the coaching session.
Some examples of those questions are found in the Appendix. A coach is a person like you and us who is trained to perform coaching sessions. A coachee is a person like you and us who has a specific purpose in mind, and in a specific personal area. For example, in this instrumental case study, our participants had to have a professional purpose in mind.
Cubeiro states that a coachee is a person who is willing to change. We conducted an instrumental case study Stake as cited in Creswell, because we wanted to identify how coaching sessions would help foreign language instructors in their professional development, and what their gains and changes were if there were some.
Before we gathered the information from the participants, they signed a consent letter in which we explained all the steps and possible results after the coaching sessions. The outreach section at the public University is a section in charge of the foreign language courses offered to all students within the University. It is also responsible for the English courses offered to professors at the University whose aim is to learn or to improve the mentioned language.
Furthermore, the section is well-known around the University for providing its services to different regions in a department in Colombia where the University is present. The University has offered this service since when it was officially established. The first semester of , the outreach section consisted of faculty members among which five were tenured professors, 10 provisional professors, and adjunct foreign language teachers, which has always been the most representative population. Foreign language instructors and psychologists worked collaboratively on this project.
The research team consists of two research assistants in the process of earning an undergraduate degree, two provisional instructors, an adjunct instructor, two psychologists, and a tenured instructor who was the main researcher. Both the psychologists and the main researcher, certified coaches by the International Coaching Leadership in Colombia, were the coaches who ran the sessions in this project.
Five adjunct English instructors who we called coachees were the participants in this study. By the time we started the study at the outreach section , there were foreign language instructors from which were adjunct instructors, and 10 full time faculty. Six adjunct English foreign language instructors volunteered to participate in the study, and after the main researcher explained to each of them the dynamics of the coaching sessions and the methodology of the study, one of them quit due to personal reasons. Each of the participants suggested one pseudonym to be called during the study; they were Elena, Julieta, Jazmin, Bambam, and Tom.
Two of them are professional translators, one holds a B. According to the information inserted in the database about instructors in charge of the University courses in the year semester 1, there are foreign language instructors from which 15 instructors are professional translators, 73 hold a B.
There is one instructor who is in the seventh semester of a major that is not in the field of foreign languages, and 11 instructors do not have their degrees reported in the database Universidad de Antioquia, The questionnaire was designed based on Creswell and sent to the participants four months after we reviewed the literature about coaching, and then we decided the objective and questions we were going to ask. One of the objectives of the questionnaire was to find out how motivated our participants were to be part of the face-to-face coaching sessions with our three coaches.
We also wanted to know, before the coaching sessions, what our participants knew about coaching and if they really had a professional goal that they wanted to discuss in the coaching sessions, something that was one of the requirements the main researcher explicitly stated when the invitation to participate in the project was sent.
They can last between 90 and minutes Cubeiro, , p. The coaching sessions performed in our project lasted from 20 minutes to around 2 hours as Table 1 shows. Table 1 Coaching Sessions Time. We planned to have five coaching sessions with each participant; however, we performed two coaching sessions with them; the other three sessions were used to give participants therapeutical orientation carried out by our two psychologists, members of the research group.
We also agreed on having the coaching session with each participant and the three coaches the two psychologists and the main researcher who is a foreign language teacher. At the end of the first session, the coaches assigned homework to each coachee. During the second session, each participant was asked to report their experience with the homework.
After the third session, each participant chose one of the psychologists to continue with the process and the three remaining sessions. The first two sessions were audio-recorded; however, we did not record the last three sessions with the psychologists because the focus of those sessions was on personal issues, and the study focused on the exploration of coaching as a strategy for professional development.
Figure 2 shows how we applied the GROW model in the coaching sessions in the project.
miércoles, marzo 08, 2006
The interviews were performed after the five sessions with each participant. We conducted a semi-structured interview, audiotaped it, and transcribed it Creswell, One of the interviewers also took notes. The interviewers were one of the co-researchers and one student assistance.
The main researcher was also present during the interviews but as an observer. The interviews were carried out in Spanish. We used a traditional data analysis for qualitative research which consists of preparing and organizing the information, then reducing it into themes through a coding process to finally present it in figures, tables, charts, or discussions.
This is part of the three analysis strategies stated by Creswell , p. Highlight certain information in description. Display findings in tables, charts, diagrams, and figures; compare cases; compare with a standard. We also considered categorical aggregation and direct interpretation as types of analysis which are discussed by Stake , p.
We did not transcribe the whole conversations because we agreed with the participants in the consent form signed that personal information would not be revealed, and the majority of the information discussed in a coaching session is personal data about the coachee. One of our research assistants transcribed all the interviews, and the researchers present in the interview also took notes.
Jazmin, Elena, Julieta, Tom, and Bambam consider coaching as a useful strategy for professional development. They consider it as a professional development opportunity for adjunct foreign language instructors not only for English instructors to grow both personally and professionally if trust and genuine interest are involved. In addition, we will explain the role that genuine care and trust play in coaching sessions as a strategy for teacher professional development.
To be part of the research project, each participant had to have a professional purpose to discuss in our coaching sessions. Our participants became aware of personal aspects that they did not control within the class or during their daily routines. Interview 1. Already there is a managing, already there is a major control of the time of preparation of class for example. Tom gained more confidence personal aspect to become closer to his students. He wants to inspire his students, so they can take charge of their own learning process; he would like to empower them.
Wholeheartedly, I want to achieve an excellent empathy with my students and well, motivate them to the point in which they find their own well to progress in their process.
Adjunct Instructors: Genesis of a Continuing Professional Development Program
Julieta became aware of the words she was using to treat herself and people around her personal area :. After the coaching sessions, Julieta started an exercise to be coherent with what she thinks, what she says, and what she does. Well, exercises about things like, about something like the coherence of what I think, what I say, and what I do.
When you feel better, you are more creative and obviously, if you are more, a more creative teacher, you will do well in your professional world. She also became conscious of how much she judges people, situations, and things, and considers the fact of having realized her tendency to judge, an opportunity to become a stronger and better person:.
Another aspect that I realized about, like that, like on a general level, was to stop like giving epithets to things, for example. All that seems to me like, it makes you stronger and improves you as a person. I am going to contribute to my students with what I have, if I am not patient, how am I going to be patient in the classroom? If I judge, how do I expect students to do not judge me? Bambam gained confidence to start writing again as he used to do many years ago. He expressed that writing was one of his major weaknesses; however, an assignment he did over the study showed the coaches that he used to write very well, something that he had stopped doing because of personal reasons:.
I really like that [the coaching sessions] and I have writing in mind, one of my biggest weaknesses. He wanted to keep writing with pens and pencils because his handwriting is beautiful; however, he had to accept that to achieve his academic goals, he would have to consider technological devices. Bambam has had this impediment to write since His participation in the project made him raise awareness regarding the use of technological devices for his writing and research professional purposes expressed in the first coaching session.
I would like to strengthen my foundations in research. I can talk, talk, and talk about many things and many topics; however, I would like to write about realities in teaching. First coaching session. Workshops, lectures, courses, and mandatory training are still part of the opportunities of professional development in educational institutions Diaz-Maggioli, ; Hudelson, ; Sierra Piedrahita, Although our participants still recognize the above-mentioned opportunities for professional development in their professional agenda, they also included both personal and professional areas when defining teacher professional development, which they also think should be continuous.
I understand for professional development, is like…a group of activities or a project or a program that aims to improving the performance, in this case, of the teachers, looking not only to their job inside the classroom but other parts of that, like the human part, the personal part. Elena, Interview. Professional development is continuous, and it will always be a merging element between the professional human being and society.
Jazmin, Interview. Tom, Interview. Julieta, Interview. The participants of the study consider that coaching can be used as a strategy of professional development with all foreign language instructors at the outreach section; it is not only a strategy for English instructors. Coaching is a process in which a person works on her or his improvement areas. Coachees express how much they learned along the process. I realized that there is a human being behind the teacher. I discovered how emotions play an important role in the classes.
With this quote, Jazmin confirms that she cares about emotions in her language classroom. The process was useful to me to identify some aspects in which I have to go in depth and it also gave me some tools to improve in important areas of my life. Written report. For Tom, this process also helped him to learn more about himself and to evaluate himself as well. He considered the experience an opportunity to improve professionally. And I consider myself incredibly fortunate enough to have the opportunity to do so quite regularly.
The important thing is, I know what those things are.
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