Dr. Jacobs Whore Part 2: A Night with Mistress


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LETTER the FIRST.

Toby : We know it's important that you have a friendly relationship with them Toby : I don't disagree. Toby : People see you with Danny. Toby : This is one time, and if we erred, it's on the side of trying to Toby : We sent you in there uninformed because we thought there was a chance you couldn't. Charlie : Mr. President, I was wondering if I could ask you a question.

Bartlet : Sure. Charlie : I was wondering how you would feel about my going out on a date with Zoey. Bartlet : I'm sorry? Charlie : Well, Zoey was talking to me before, and she mentioned that if I had a free night Bartlet : My daughter asked you out? Charlie : Yes, sir. Bartlet : I should've locked her in the dungeon. Charlie : I don't think you've got one, sir.

Bartlet : I could've built one. Bartlet : Thank you for coming. How was your flight? Marbury : Intoxicating. Leo : So I see. Marbury : [to Leo] Allow me to present myself Lord John Marbury, I was summoned by your President. We've met, 10 or 12 times. I'm Leo McGarry. Marbury : I thought you were the butler. Marbury : Nonetheless, would you have something with which to light my cigarette? Leo : No, I'm afraid we don't allow smoking in this part of the world. Marbury : Really? Leo : Yes, sir.

Marbury : In this part over here we encourage it. Leo : Sir. Marbury : It's 'Your Lordship,' as a matter of fact, but it couldn't possibly make the least difference. So, tell me, how can I be of service to you? If it's within my power to give, you shall have it. Bartlet : We need your take on the situation, John. Marbury : What is your 'take' on the situation? Bartlet : The world is coming apart at the seams. Marbury : Well, then Bartlet : Say, listen.

My hesitation about your going out with Zoey before, you know, it's not 'cause you're black. Charlie : I didn't think it was. Bartlet : It's not. Charlie : I thought it was 'cause I'm a guy. Bartlet : It is. Charlie : I understand. Bartlet : Still, I want you to go out with her if that's what you both want to do. Charlie : I'd like to. Bartlet : That's fine. Charlie : Thank you, sir. Bartlet : Just remember these two things: She's nineteen years old, and the 82nd Airborne works for me. Charlie : Yes sir. He Shall, from Time to Time And they brought the boyfriends out, and they fought, right there on television.

Toby, tell me: these people don't vote, do they? Bartlet : [practicing the State of the Union speech] I came to this hallowed chamber one year ago on a mission, to restore the American dream for all our people as we gaze at the vast horizon of possibilities open to us Wow, that was ambitious of me, wasn't it? Sam : Leo. Leo : Let's take a break. Bartlet : We meant 'stronger' here, right? Sam : What does it say? Bartlet : I'm proud to report our country's stranger than it was a year ago?

Sam : That's a typo. Bartlet : Could go either way. Donna : So if the Capitol building blows up, the man my country will be looking to is the Secretary of Agriculture? Josh : It's my country too. Donna : Yeah, but you'll be dead. Josh : Which is why I really don't care that much. Donna : What percentage of things exploding have been anticipated? Josh : Now you're bringing me down. Donna : I would think so. Bartlet : What's on your mind? Toby : "The era of big government is over.

Toby : I want to change the sentiment. But we're here now, tomorrow night we do an immense thing; we have to say what we feel, that government, no matter what its failures in the past and in times to come for that matter, government can be a place where people come together and where no one gets left behind.

No one An instrument of good. If anything happened, you know what to do, right? Roger Tribbey : I honestly hadn't thought about it, sir. Bartlet : First thing always is national security. Get your commanders together. Appoint Joint Chiefs, appoint a chairman. Have the governors send emergency delegates to Washington. The assistant Attorney General is going to be the Acting A. If he tells you he wants to bring out the National Guard, do what he tells you.

Roger Tribbey : Yes, sir. Bartlet : Is he smarter than you? Roger Tribbey : [chuckles] Yes, sir. Bartlet : Would you trust him with your life? Bartlet : That's your chief of staff. Josh : I need you to read a report. Josh : There's no doubt about it, but I need you to read this anyway. Josh : We want Congress to sign off on funds for a hundred thousand new teachers. They say, fine, but you gotta stipulate that in Sex Ed classes Josh : We commissioned a report about a year ago on Sex Education in public schools, and, well, this is it.

Josh : It's not good. Josh : It says basically that teaching 'abstinence only' doesn't work—that people are going to be prone to have sex whether they're cautioned against it or not. Josh : Something called "abstinence plus".

What is Kobo Super Points?

Josh : Well, Sam's renamed it 'everything but'. Josh : A regrettable pun. Should I order you some food? Josh : By the way, pages 27 to 33? A couple of things every girl should know. Lydell : The hate crimes bill is fine. Who gives a damn? It's fine, I don't care. If you ask me, we shouldn't be making laws against what's in a person head but I don't give a damn, it's fine. I don't understand how this president, who I voted for, I don't understand how he can take such a completely weak ass position on gay rights.

Gays in the military, same sex marriage, gay adoption, boards of education. Where the hell is he? I want to know what quality necessary to being a parent the president feels my son lacked. I want to know from this president who has served not one day in uniform - I had two terms in Vietnam - I want to know what quality necessary to being a soldier this president feels my son lacked. Lady I'm not embarrassed that my son is gay, my government is. Now this is a company whose chief executive earns high six-figures in salary and benefits per year.

Yet Sesame Street is subsidized by taxpayer dollars. Toby : It's a perfectly reasonable complaint. Sondra : And? Toby : I don't care. Hamlin : Toby Toby : We're gonna see to all those things. In the meantime, at a time when the public is rightly concerned about the impact of sex and violence on TV this administration is gonna protect the Muppets , we're gonna protect Wall Street Week , we're gonna protect Live From Lincoln Center and by God, we are going to protect Julia Child.

Lydell in St. Paul and ask them why Danny : Don't. Danny : Don't leak me a story. Danny : I've seen this look on the face of four other press secretaries before you. You've got a story in the trash this week that's a story, you want it out there and someone said, "No. Danny : That happens sometimes. Danny : I always took a free lead. Danny : Not from you. Danny : Cause twenty minutes from now, you're gonna remember you're a professional and you're not gonna like me anymore. Danny : I don't know. But, as long as you keep grabbing me and kissing me, what the hell do I care? Danny : If there's a story, I'll find it.

Danny : How do you know? Danny : Yes, you have. Yes, we have. Bartlet : Mrs. Landingham : Yes sir? Bartlet : You're not going to believe this but I think I'd actually like a banana. Landingham : I'm afraid not sir, no. Bartlet : Why not? Landingham : You were offered one earlier, sir, and you were snippy. Bartlet : I wasn't snippy! Landingham : I'm afraid you were, Mr.

Bartlet : Thank you, Mrs. Charlie : Nigeria. Sam : Pakistan. Charlie : Saudi Arabia and Iran? Sam : Yeah. So, that's a list we definitely want to be on. Toby : The Torah doesn't prohibit capital punishment. Rabbi Glassman : No. Toby : It says, 'An eye for an eye'. Rabbi Glassman : You know what it also says? It says a rebellious child can be brought to the city gates and stoned to death.

It says homosexuality is an abomination and punishable by death. It says men can be polygamous and slavery is acceptable. For all I know, that thinking reflected the best wisdom of its time, but it's just plain wrong by any modern standard. Society has a right to protect itself, but it doesn't have a right to be vengeful. It has a right to punish, but it doesn't have a right to kill. Toby : Well, for one thing, neither is the President!

Rabbi Glassman : Say what you will about the Catholic Church, but their position on life is unimpeachable: no abortion, no death penalty. Toby : I spent yesterday Rabbi Glassman : You spent yesterday hoping the President wouldn't call the Pope. Toby : You're damn right I did. Rabbi Glassman : If he had done it, after doing so, the fear of every non-Catholic who voted for him would be realized.

Bartlet : Charlie, I'm going to ask you a question. And this is one of those times that it's OK to tell me I've stepped over the line, and I should shut my mouth, okay? Charlie : Okay. Bartlet : What happened to the guy who shot your mother? Charlie : They haven't found him yet, sir. Bartlet : If they did, would you want to see him executed?

Killing a police officer is a capital crime. I figured you must have thought about it. Bartlet : And? Charlie : I wouldn't want to see him executed, Mr. Bartlet : [looks thoughtful] Yeah. Bartlet : I want you to know that I had a number of people on my staff search for a reason the public would find palatable to commute the sentence. Any evidence of racism. Father Cavanaugh : So your staff spent the weekend looking for a way out. Bartlet : Yeah. Father Cavanaugh : Like the kid in right field who doesn't want the ball to get hit to him.

Bartlet : I'm the leader of a democracy, Tom. The people have spoken. The courts have spoken. Father Cavanaugh : Did you call the Pope? Father Cavanaugh : And how do you do that? Bartlet : Oh, for crying out loud, Tom. I open my mouth and say, "Somebody get me the Pope. President, but I was thinking Bartlet : Anyway I looked for a way out, I really did. Father Cavanaugh : "Vengeance is mine," sayeth the Lord. You know what that means? God is the only one who gets to kill people. Father Cavanaugh : That was your way out. Father Cavanaugh : Did you pray?

Bartlet : I did, Tom.


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I know it's hard to believe, but I prayed for wisdom. Father Cavanaugh : And none came? Bartlet : It never has. And I'm a little pissed off about that. Father Cavanaugh : You know, you remind me of the man that lived by the river. He heard a radio report that the river was going to rush up and flood the town. And that all the residents should evacuate their homes. I pray. God loves me. God will save me. A guy in a row boat came along and he shouted, "Hey, hey you! You in there. The town is flooding. Let me take you to safety. And a guy with a megaphone shouted, "Hey you, you down there.

And standing at the gates of St. Peter, he demanded an audience with God. I thought you loved me. Why did this happen? What the hell are you doing here? Not to mention his son, Jesus Christ. What do you want from him? Bartlet : Yes, please. Celestial Navigation [ edit ] C. Josh : [looks up] What the hell happened? Josh : What happened to your cheeks? Josh : Why are you talking like that?

Josh : Yeah, I heard you the first time, I was just amusing myself. Josh : Are you in pain? Josh : You're gonna need to stop saying that, 'cause you just look and sound so ridiculous.

Sam asked C. Bartlet : Who did? Josh : I did. Bartlet : Oh, God. Josh : You're going to be reading a bit today about your secret plan to fight inflation. Bartlet : I have a secret plan to fight inflation? Bartlet : Why am I going to be reading that I do? Josh : It was suggested in the press room that you do. Bartlet : By who? Josh : By me. Bartlet : You told the press I have a secret plan to fight inflation? Josh : No, I did not. Let me be absolutely clear, I did not do that. Except, yes, I did that. Bartlet : Josh, I'm a little confused.

Josh : Sir, there was this idiotic round robin. It was sarcastic. There was no way they didn't know that. They were just mad at me for imposing discipline and calling them stupid. Bartlet : Okay, before we go on: C. Josh : I denied it for half an hour, they wouldn't take no for an answer! Bartlet : You were clear? Josh : I was crystal clear! They said, "Do you think that if the President has a plan to fight inflation, it's right that he keep it a secret? Bartlet : Are you telling me that not only did you invent a secret plan to fight inflation, but now you don't support it?

Toby : Something really kinda freakish about you, you know that? Mendoza : You pull all the strings you want, Toby, but not for me. Come Monday, I'm gonna avail myself of the criminal justice system for which I have worked my entire adult life. Toby : Judge, due respect.

Get your things and let's go. Mendoza : [angrily] My kid was in the car, Toby. They patted me down and they handcuffed me in front of my nine-year-old boy. Then he and his mother got to see them put me in the squad car and drive away. Toby : He's also seen you wearing a robe with a gavel in your hand. Mendoza : He doesn't understand that. He doesn't know what that is. He understands what the police are because he watches television.

That's what he's gonna remember, his father being handcuffed. So America just got another pissed-off guy with dark skin. Zoey : Hi. Charlie : Listen, uh, I don't know if I'm going to be able to be as attentive on this trip as you would like. Zoey : That's okay. You're working.

Charlie : Well, I've been trying to listen to some of the many lessons you've been giving me on how to be a better boyfriend and I know that attentiveness-- Zoey : No, this is one of the times when it's okay. It's hard to tell the difference between those times and the other times. Zoey : I know. Doesn't that suck for you? Charlie : A little bit, yeah. Bartlet : Okay. Zoey's 19 and she wants to be a teenager. She wants a college experience, and I can't blame her.

I loved college. So did my other daughters. I want Zoey to be comfortable with her protection, I don't want her to try and give you the slip. It's not your job to tell me she wants to cut English Lit, it's not your job to tell me if she's dying her hair blue, or going to a strip club, or whatever it is she's doing with her friends. You know what your job is. Gina : Yes, sir. Gina : [gets up and shakes his hand] Thank you, Mr. Bartlet : Gina? Gina : Yes, sir? Bartlet : If she's cutting English Lit, I want to know about it.

Gina : No deal, Mr. Toby : What, I'm not coming in the car? Bartlet : No, and you know why? Because you made fun of the guacamole. Toby : I didn't! Bartlet : I could tell you were thinking it. Fair enough. Leo : Well, sir, when you've exhausted all the other reasons, the last can be that you can't fire the Vice President. Al Kiefer : Mr. President, do you want to sew up reelection right now? Do you want a lock on your second term right here, right now in this room? Bartlet : What do you got? Josh : Why do you encourage him?

Bartlet : What do you got, Al? Al Kiefer : A truckload of voters, Mr. Overwhelmingly white men, pool and patio types. Who voted against you by 20 plus points? They share an affinity towards authority, a President. And they see you as smart and having vision, so why didn't they vote for you? Because they also see you as a wimp. Two-thirds of them on a thermometer place you as some degree of weak. Josh : We've heard these numbers before.

Bartlet : Yeah, but I never get tired of hearing them, you know. Especially in front of my daughter. Al Kiefer : Look, I get that this is not the most popular idea in the room. But I got numbers, and I know numbers, and I trust numbers. And the reason you're all looking a little pale right now is so do you. This is not theoretical. The flag burning amendment made it through the House with 20 votes over the required two-thirds. It hasn't made it through the Senate yet, but that day will come, that day will come, that day will come soon.

Laws against flag burning are favored overwhelmingly in the polls, and a constitutional amendment won't be subject to a Presidential veto, or overturning by the Supreme Court. Toby : Look Al Kiefer : This all adds up to one thing, Mr. It's over! The game's been played and won. But because of guys like me, you get the results before anyone else does, so you get to pick which side you're on.

And not only do we get to be on the winning team, we get to lead the winning team. He walks away from the table. Al Kiefer : Toby, you're smiling. Toby : I just figured out who you were. Al Kiefer : He's going to say Satan. Toby : No. You're the guy that runs into 7-Eleven to get Satan a pack of cigarettes. Leo : John, I know we've had our ups and downs, but let me be your guy here for a second.

We have no wise departed from our exemplar except in two par ticulars : i. The sheet marks are given exactly in large paper copies. Even palpable blunders in the text are left un altered ; but many corrections not conjectural, but obtained by collation are afforded in the Appendix Notes. These are kept apart intentionally. No tables of Contents or of First Lines appear in the original, but have been included, alphabetically arranged, for convenience of the Reader, Is he wearied of this Preludium or Overture?

We hope not. May he en joy the Concert here about to be reproduced for his delight, not irritated by a few discordant notes. The curtain rises, and the first performer is none other than the King himself, " Old Rowley," for whom we have a liking, despite his peccadilloes. Hats off, gentlemen, if you please, in presence of his Majesty, and listen to the Drolleries. Westminster Drollery. With Additions. Bromc at the Gun in St. Paufs Church Yard, near the West End.

The first Song in the Ball at Court. O then 'tis, O then I think there's no such Hell, Like loving, like loving to welL 2, But each shade and each conscious Bow'r that I find, Where I once have been happy, and she has been kind, And I see the print left of her shape in the Green, And imagine the pleasure may yet come agen, O then 'tis, O then, I think no joy's above The pleasures, the pleasures of love, 3- While alone to myself I repeat all her charms, She I love may be lock'd in another mans arms : She may laugh at my cares, and so false she may be, To say all the kind things she before said to me.

But Westminster-Drollery. O then 'tis, O then I think no joys above 77ie pleasures, the pleasures of Love. The second Song in the Masque at Court. Lover I am, and a Lover I'le be, And hope from my Love I shall never be free, Let wisdom be blam'd in the grave woman-hater, - Yet never to love, is a sin of ill nature : But he who loves well, and whose passion is strong, Shall never be wretched, but ever be young.

With hopes and with fears, like a Ship in the Ocean, Our hearts are kept dancing, and ever in motion. When our passion is pallid, and our fancy wou'd fail, A little kind quarrel supplies a fresh gale : But when the doubt's clear'd, and the jealousi's gone, Howwe kiss, and embrace, and can never have done. OW hard is a heart to be cur'd That is once overwhelm'd with despair, 'Tis a pain by force is endur'd, Despises our pity, and scoffs at our fear : But if nothing but Death shall untie Those fetters wherewith you enslave me, For your sake I am ready to try If you are unwilling to leave me, Then I am not unwilling to die.

How much were it better complying With the tears, the sighs, and the groans Of a poor distrest Lover dying, And list to the cries of his pitiful moans : When your Slave shall in triumph be led To see the effects of good nature, It shall for your honour be sed, 'Tis true you have kilPd a poor Creature, Yet have rais'd him again from the dead.

Though your heart be as cold as the ice is, At one time or other you'l find, That love has a thousand devices [mind. To banish could thoughts from your scrupulous A 4 Thy Westminster-Drollery: Thy aid mighty Jove I implore, That thou to the fair one discover, The joys I have for her in store, Which she to her passionate Lover Will say, she'll be cruel no more. Not a breath of feigned passion From my lips shall reach your ears ; Nor this love that's now in fashion, Made of modest sighs and tears. In my breast a room so fitting For your heart I will prepare, That you'l never think of quitting, Were you once but harbour'd there.

The Rent's not great that I require From your heart, mine to repay : Fortitude's all I desire To keep your lodging from decay. Fairest Westm inster-Drollery. Fairest Saint, then be not cruel, Nor to love me count it sin ; Since a smile from you is fewel, For to keep this fire in. When I am forc'd by death or age, From your flames for to retire, All true Lovers I'll engage Still my passion to admire. The last Song at the Kings House.

A Song. This peevish shall I, shall I, you'll repent, When your spring is over, Beauties after-math no kind friends hath To gratifie a Lover. Perhaps you may think 'tis a sin to deal, Till Hymen doth authorize you : Though the Gods themselves sweet pleasure steal, That to coyness thus advise you. Pox upon the Link-boy and his Taper, I'll kiss, although not have you, 'Twas an Eunuch wrote all the Text that you quote, And the Ethicks that inslave you.

I am sure you have heard of that sprightly Dame That with Mars so often traded, Had the God but thought she had been to blame, She had surely been degraded. Nor Westminster-Drollery. Tis plain antiquity doth lie Which made Lucretia squeamish ; For that which you call Chastity, Upon her left a blemish : For when her Paramour grew weak, Her passion waxed stronger, For the Lecherous Drab her self did stab 'Cause Tarquin staid no longer.

Then away with this Bugbear Vice, You are lost if that you fly me, In Elizium if you here are nice You never shall come nigh me : Hell for Vestals is a Cloyster I don't run doting thither, For the pleasant shades are for her that trades Let's truck and go together. A late Song by a Person of Quality. A Las, what shall I do? Though 8 Westminster-Drollery. Though I am put to th' rout, it must be : [foot Thou shalt do't, then stand to't I'll set my Muse on With a good chirping Cup, [of wine, There may some hidden Mine, spring from the juice Then take 't and drink it up. Pox on't, it will not do, I must have t'other too, I claim it as my due, and must love't ; [hie For where the Land is dry, the good Husband he doth To bring the water nigh to improve 't.

Here's the use of the Juice, open me then the since, And deny my wit in grain ; That Skull's ne'er empty that takes it in plenty, It's the only spring of the brain. Madam now you may see what obedience is in me, I have done what may be to obey, [to boot, I have set my Muse on foot, with the sprightly grape Your Commands made me do't, they must sway : If my pate soon or late, shall bring forth some conceit, To you my wit I owe. If I do fall flat, it's because, mark you that, I am a Cup to low. If I spake sense enough, or did speak but stuff, All is alike to me ; I'll never pause upon't, you were the cause on't, And that's my Apologie.

Silvia Westm inster-Drolleiy. Made by a Person of Honour. But the Answer and Reply lately added. Friend, leave off thy wooing. His io Westminster-Drollery. SIL VIA know, I never shall more Be a Suitor to pride and disdaining, Nor can my respects be as heretofore, Being now in the time of their waining : For I prize not thy love, nor I fear not thy hate, Then prethee take it for a warning, Whenever you meet with another mate, Faith Silvia leave off your scorning.

A Song at the Kings House. Unknown to my self, I am just at her door, And when I would rail, I can bring out no more, Than, Phillis too fair and unkind, Than, Phillis too fair and unkind. When Phillis I see, my heart burns in my brest, And the love I would stifle is shown, But asleep or wake, I am never at rest, When from mine eyes Phillis is gone. Some Westminster-Drollery. I discover too much of my love, And she too well knows her own power ; She makes me each day a new Martyrdom prove, And makes me grow jealous each hour. But let her each minute torment my poor mind, I had rather love Phillis both false and unkind, Then ever be freed from her power, Then ever be freed from her power.

Most neatly look'd her braided hair, Her lovely cheeks would make you mad : Upon her Lips did all the Graces play, And on her Breasts ten thousand Cupids lay. Then many a doting Lover came, From seventeen unto twenty one : Each told her of his mighty flame, But she forsooth affected none ; This was not handsome, f other was not fine ; This of Tobacco smelt, and that of Wine. But t'other day, it was my fate To pass along that way alone : I saw no Coach before her Gate, But at her door I heard her moan, And dropt a tear, and sighing seem'd to say, Young Ladies marry, marry while you may.

Men Westminster-Drollery. Men that are grave and should be wise, In their opinions are so precise, That always they turn up the whites of their eyes, When plotting some other faction. Conventicles are grown so rife, Whose followers are so many, There's so much gathered for their relief, Poor Cavaliers cannot get any. Wit without money is such a curse, No Mortal would be in its Clutches : And he that hath one without t'other is worse Than a Cripple without his Crutches. A Song by a Person of Quality. I die, I die, my breath's almost gone : Pray let me sleep, and I'll wake anon.

A Rhodomantade on his cruel Mistress. Were she but ugly, peevish, proud, a Whore, Perjur'd or painted, so she were no more, I could forgive her, and connive at this, Alledging still she but a Woman is : But she is worse, and may in time forestal, The Devil, and be the damning of us all. A SONG. A Dialogue betiveen two Friends. How severe is forgetful Old Age. Since her honour affords no relief, As to pity the pains which you bear, It's Westminster-Drollery. I have tried the false Medicine in vain, Yet I wisht what I hope not to win, From without my desires has no food to its fires, But it burns and consumes me within.

Yet at best it's a comfort to know That you are not unhappy alone ; For the Nymph you adore is as wretched or more, And accounts all your sufferings her own. O you Powers let me suffer for both, At the feet of my Phyllis I'll lie, I'll resign up my breath, and take pleasure in death, To be pitied by her when I die. What her honour deny'd you in life, In her death she will give to her love : Such a flame as is true after fate will renew, For the souls do meet freely above.

Grant my Revenge, this Plague on men, That Women ne'r may love agen. Then I'll with joy submit unto my Fate, Which by your justice gives your Empire date. Depose that great insulting Tyrant Boy, Who most is pleas'd when he does most destroy : O let the world no longer govern'd be By such a blind and childish Deity.

But if you'l his Divinity maintain, 'Tis men, false men, confirm his tott'ring reign And when their hearts Loves greatest torment prove Let that no pity, but our laughter move. Thus scorn' d and lost to all their wiskt for aim, Let rage, despair, and death consume their flame. The Wooing Rogue. The Tune is, My Freedom is all my i. And Westminster-Drollery. And when we both shall have the Pox, We then shall want both Shirts and Smocks, To shift each others mangy hide, That is with Itch so pockifi'd ; We'l take some clean ones from a hedge, And leave our old ones for a pledge, And leave our old ones for a pledge.

Though i o Westminster-Drollery. Though I whisper my sighs out alone, Yet I am trac'd where-ever I go, [me That some treacherous Tree keeps this old man from And there he counts every hey ho. How shall I this Argus blind, And so put an end to my wo? But whilst I beguile all his frowns with a smile,' I betray myself with a hey ho. My restraint then, alas, must endure ; So that since my sad doom I know, I will pine for my Love like the Turtle Dove, And breathe out my life in hey ho.

You suppose because I walk, And you think talk, I therefore breath, alas, you know Shades as well as men do so. You xnay argue I have heat, My pulses beat, My sighs have in them living fire. Grant your Argument be truth, Such heats my youth Inflame, as poysons do only prepare To make death their follower. Farewel, farewel. Unhappy, though the crime was thine, And mine the misery : Thou art not kind, ther's none so blind As those that will not see.

Have I not sigh'd away my breath In homage to thy beauty : What have I got but certain death, A poor reward for duty. Well, when I'm gone you'l ne'r have one That will prove half so true t' ye. Have I not steep'd my soul in tears, When thou didst hardly mind it?

Name That Book cont. Part II

But rather added to my fears, When love should have declin'd it ; Which in this breast, I hope for rest, But now despair to find it 4. O that I could but sound thy heart, And fathom but thy mind : Then would I search thy better part, And force thee to be kind : But Westminster-Drollery, 2 1 But now I'm lost, and here am crost, Tis they that hide must find. If pity then within thy heart Doth own a residence, Vouchsafe to read my tragick part, And plead my innocence : Then when I'm dead, it may be said, 'Twas love was my offence. But since thy will is to destroy, I dare not mercy crave, But kindly thank my fate, and joy I liVd to die thy Slave : Then exercise those killing eyes, And frown me to my grave.

All Love is blind, Yet none more unkind, Than those that repay Love with a proud mind. Love 22 Westminster-Drollery. Then gentle Love for Loves own sake, Sigh loving Soul, and break heart, break. My heart is on fire, whilst I do admire That you with disdain requite my desire : All must cease, that my flames may increase, And curs'd be the pride that murther'd my peace.

If love be sin, why live you then To make so many guilty men? Since 'tis not in the power of Art To make a Brest-plate for the heart : Since 'tis your eyes Love's Shafts convey Into our souls a secret way ; Where if once fixt, no Herb nor charm Can cure us of our inward harm. With our plaints we'l conspire For to heighten Loves fire, Still vanquishing life, till at last we expire : But when we are dead, In a cold leafy bed Be interr'd with the Dirge of this desolate Quire.

Such is my fortune when my Flora frowns, Not only me, but she the world will drown. Thus am I drench'd in misery, Yet hope she may be kind to me : I, but 'tis long first, could she but restrain Those kindnesses which Fd be glad to gain, She'l -surely do't : if so, it shall be known I loVd her for her own sake, not my own. Thus will I live and die, and so will be Exemplary to all Posterity. A Song, i. The Eagle soaring to behold The Sun aray'd in flames of gold, Regards not though she burns her wings, Since that rich sight such pleasure brings.

So feel I now my smiling thought To such a resolution brought, That it contemns all grief and smart, Since I so high have plac'd my heart. And if I die, some worthy Spirits To future times shall sing my merits, That easily did my life despise, Yet ne'r forsook my enterprise. Then shine bright Sun, and let me see, The glory of thy Majesty : I wish to die, so I may have Thy look, my death ; thine eye, my grave. From Westminster-Drollery. From thoughts inflam'd pale colours fume Into my face, and it consume : O my poor heart, what charms thee so, That thy afflicted face lets know, 3. Yet will not tell who murthers thee, But yet will still a Lover be : Who hides my Phenix eyes, that she Whom I adore thus cannot see, 4.

How I for her am made a prey To sorrow : and do pine away : O foolish custom and vile use, My silence now deserves no truce. A Song at the Dukes House. Dearest, before you condesend To entertain a bosom Friend. Be sure you know your servant well. Before your liberty you sell : For love's a fire in young and old, Tis sometimes hot, and sometimes cold; And men you know that when they please, They can be sick of Loves disease. Then wisely chuse a Friend that may Last for an age, and not a day ; Who loves thee not for lip or eye, But for thy mutual sympathy.

Let such a Friend thy heart engage, For he will comfort thee in age, And kiss thy furrow'd wrinkled brow With as much joy as I do now. A Song called, And to each pretty Lass -we will givt a green Gown. We , Westminster-Drollery. And when we have done, 6. To Cupid and Venus each offer' da Vow, To love ever as they lotfd now, 2. Love must be secret, for like fairy treasure, When 'tis discover'd, 'twill quickly be gone. For Envy and Jealousie, if it will stay, Would, alas soon make it decay. Then 3O Westminster-Drollery. Then let us Jeave this world and care behind us, Said the Nymph, smiling, and gave him her hand : AH alone, all alone, where none shall find us, In some fair Desart we'l seek a new Land.

And there live from Envy and Jealousie free, And a World to each other we'll be. Passion's but an empty name, Where respect is wanting ; Damon, you mistake your aim, Hang your heart, and dam your flame, If you must be ranting. Love as pale and muddy is, As decaying Liquor : Anger sets it on the Lees, And refines it by degrees, Till it works it quicker. Love Westminster-Drollery. Love by anger to beget, Wisely you endeavour, With a grave Physician wit, Who to cure an ague fit, Puts me in a Feavour. Anger rowseth Love to fight, And its only bait is, Tis the guide to dull delight, And is but an eager bite When desire at height is.

If such drops of heat do fall, In our wooing weather, If such drops of heat do fall, We shall have the Devil and all, When we come together. From 32 Westminster-Drollery. From the bright Virgin's head, A careless Veil of Lawn was loosely spread : From her white Temple fell her shady hair, Like cloudy Sun-shine, not too brown nor fair, Her hands, her lips did love inspire, Her every Grace my heart did fire, But most her eyes, that languish with desire, 3.

Ah charming Fair, said I, How long can you my bliss deny? By nature and by Love this lovely shade Was for revenge of suffering Lovers made Silence and shades with Love agree. Both shelter you and favour me : You cannot blush, because I cannot see. No, let me die, she said, Rather than lose the spotless name of Maid.

Faintly methought she spoke ; for all the while She bid me not believe her, with a smile. I wak'd, and straight I knew I lovM so well, it made my dream prove true. The disconsolate Lover. Thinking my restless soul to repose, All my thoughts they began then to be numbring Up her disdainings, the cause of my woes ; That so encreast my dolour and pain, I fear I never shall see her again : Which makes me sigh, and sobbing cry, O my Love, O my Love, for thee I die.

When this fair cruel She I first saw praying Within the Temple unto her Saint, Then mine eyes every look my heart betraying, Which is the cause of my doleful complaint, That all my joys are quite fled and gone : And I in sorrow am now left alone : Which makes me sigh, and sobbing cry, my Love, my Love, for thee I die.

Then farewel ev'ry thing that sounds like pleasure, And welcome Death the cure of my smart. I 34 Westminster-Drollery. I deem'd first sight of her, I grasp'd a treasure ; But wo is me, it has broken my heart : For now my Passing-bell calls away, And I with her no longer must stay : Which makes me sigh, and sobbing cry, O my Love, O my Love, for thee I die. The subtil and coy Girl. The Tune, Silvia tell me how long it will be. She'l not give me a reason, But shews me a frown Is enough to destroy a poor Lover. Ah Celia, once I did think thee mine own, But now I my folly discover.

Is it because I have been so kind At all times to feed thy desire In Presents and Treats, thou hast chang'd thy mind, And left me like Dun in the Mire? Or else is't because thou dost Think my Estate Is too mean to uphold thee in Brav'ry? Know Westminster-Drollery. Or is't because thou wilt follow the mode, Since most are addicted to changing, Thou'dst only get thee a name abroad, I being more famous for ranging. Nay Cetia, more this truth thou woo't find, I therefore advise thee be wary, When ever thou getst thee a Mate to thy mind, He'l play thee the same fagary.

The Drawing of Valentines. The tune, Madams Jig. Then Mr. John drew Mrs Jone first, Sir. And Mrs. Jone would fain a drawn John an' she Durst, Sir. So Mr. William drew Mrs. Gillian the next, Sir ; And Mrs. Gillian not drawing of William. Was vex't, Sir. They 36 Westminster-Drollery. They then did jumble all in the hat together, And each did promise them to draw 'em fair Sir : But Mrs. Hester vow'd that she had rather Draw Mr.

Kester then any that was there Sir : So Mr. Kester drew with Mrs. Hester then Sir : And Mrs. Hester drew Mr. Kester agen Sir : And Mr. Harry drew Mrs. Mary featly, And Mrs. Mary did draw Mr. Harry as neatly. Richard drew Mrs. Bridget squarely, And Mrs. Bridget drew Mr. Richard as fairly : But Mr. Hugh drew Mrs. Su but slily, And Mrs. Su did draw Mr. Hugh as wily. Thus have you heard o' th' twelve that lately drew Sir, [Sir : How every one would fain their Friend have drawn And now there's left to draw but four o' th crew Sir, And each did promise his Lass an ell of Lawn Sir.

Watty drew Mrs. Katy but slightly, And Mrs. Katy did draw Mr. Watty as lightly : But Mr. Thomas in drawing ofAnm's too fast Sir. Made Mrs. Annis to draw Mr. Thomas at last Sir. A late and true story of a furious Scold, served in her kind. The tune, Step stately. I 38 Westminster-Drollery. I once did go to drink with a Friend, But she in a trice did fetch me away : We both but two pence a piece did spend, Yet it prov'd to me Execution day ; For she flew in my face, and call'd me fool, And comb'd my head with a three-legg'd stool : Nay, she furnisht my face with so many scratches, That for a whole month 'twas cover'd with patches.

Whatever money I get in the day, To keep her in quiet I give her at night, Or else shall license her tongue to play For two or three hours just like a spright. Then to the Cupboard Pilgarlick must hie, To seek for some Crusts that have long lain dry : So I steep 'um in skim-milk until they are wet, And commonly this is the Supper I get. And once a month, for fashion sake, She gives me leave to come to her bed ; But most that time I must lie awake, Lest she in her fits should knock me o' th' head. But for the Bed I do lie on my self, You'd think 'twere as soft as an Oaken shelf; For the Tick is made of Hempen-hurds : And yet for all this I must give her good words.

We commonly both do piss in a Pan, But the Cullender once was set in the place : She then did take it up in her hand, And flounc't it out on my stomach and face. Then a Maid that was my Sweet heart before Did come to the house to borrow a Pail : I kist her but once, and I thought on't no more, But she flew in her face with tooth and nail : But the Wench she stood to her, and claw'd her about, That for a whole fortnight she never stirr'd out ; For her eyes were so swell'd, and her face was so tore That I never saw Jade so mangled before.

She then did bid me drop in her eyes A Sovereign Water sent her that day, But I had a Liquor I more did prize, Made of Henbane and Mercury steep'd in Whey : I dropt it in and nointed her face, Which brought her into a most Devilish case : For she tore and she ranted, and well she might ; For after that time she ne're had sight.

I then did get her a Dog and a Bell, To lead her about from place to place : And now 'tis, Husband, I hope, you are well ; But before It was Cuckold and Rogue to my face ; Then blest be that Henbane and Mercury strong, That made such a change in my wives tongue. You see 'tis a Medicine certain and sure, For the cure of a Scold, but lie say no more. A Song on the Declensions. She ne'er declin'd yet any man, Yet they! First Musa is her Mothers name, And hcec does still attend her : She is a hujus burley Dame, Though huic be but slender : Yet she'l have a hanc on every man, And hac him to do what he can, Unless they do befriend her.

Magi- Westminster-Drollery. Magister was her Father too, And hie is still his man Sir, Nayy? Next she's to lapis very kind, As honest hie has sed Sir ; For she's to precious stones inclin'd Full long before she was wed Sir. Which made her Parents often say, That hie and hcec both night and day, Was forc'd to watch her bed Sir. Yet give him mani busses when That she could get no other men, That he could not withstand her. She day by day would dies pledge, Which set poor acies teeth an edge, And often made him spew Sir. Meridies, Manus, and Felix too Are happy that they never knew Any of all her stations.

A Song of the three degrees of comparison. The tune, And 'tis the Knave of Clubs bears all the sway. She's positively known a Whore, And superlatively runs on score. Next she's called Comparative, For she'l compare to any alive, For scolding, whoring, and the rest : Of the Illiberal Sciences in her breast : She'l drink more hard than durior, Though he would harder drink before.

Thus have I shew'd my Mistress t'ye, And gradually in each degree : How shew is Positive to some, Comparative when others come, Superlative even over all, Yet underneath her self will fall. The 44 Westminster-Drollery. The kind Husband, but imperious Wife. The first part of the Tune his, and the latter part her j s, M.

Wife, what wouldst thou have me to do now, I think I have plaid the man, But if I were ruled by you now, You'd have me do more than I can. I make you do more than you can? Wife, prethee now leave off thy ranting, And let us both agree ; There's nothing else shall be wanting, If thou wilt be ruled by me. Thou shalt have all this, my dear wife, And thou shalt bear the sway, And I'l provide thee good chear, wife, 'Gainst thou com'st from the Park or a Play : m 8.

Thou shalt have this too, my sweet wife, If thou'dst contented be, Or any thing else that is meet wife, So that we may but agree. And I'll make you to know your Cue, When they come in and go out agen. Methinks a couple's to few, wife, Thou shalt have three or four, And yet I know thou'dst be true, wife, Although thou hadst half a score. For Westminster-Drollery. And stand at the door below : For I will be there to receive you with care, And to your true love you shall go. How 48 Westminster-Drollery, 2. My Love is blithe and bucksome, And sweet and fine as can be : Fresh and gay as the flowers in May, And looks like Jackadandy.

And if she will not have me, That am so true a Lover, I'l drink my Wine, and ne'r repine, And down the stairs I'l shove her. But if that she will love, I'l be as kind as may be ; n Westminster-Drollery. Her Smock o' th' finest Holland, And lac'd in every quarter : Side and wide, and long enough, And hangs below her garter. Then to the Church I'l have her, Where we will wed together : So come home when we have done, In spight of wind and weather : 9. The Fidlers shall attend us, And first play, John come kiss me ; And when that we have danc'd a round, They shall play, Hit or miss me.

Then 50 Westminster-Drollery. These following are to be understood two ways. On the Sea-fight with the Hollanders in the Rumps time. Thus I my wishes and my prayers divide Between the Rebels and the Regicide : Backwards and forwards thus I break my mind, And hope the Fates at last will be so kind, That the old Proverb may but wheel about, True men might have their own, now Knaves fall out.

The Answer to Ask me no more whither doth stray. I'l tell you true where may be found A voice that's like the Screech-Owls sound : For in your false deriding throat It lies, and death is in its note. I'l tell you true whither doth pass The smiling look seen in the glass For in your face't reflects and there False as your shadow doth appear.

I'l tell you true whither are blown The angry wheels of Thistle-down : It flies into your mind, whose care Is to be light as Thistles are. Time must now unite our hearts, Not for any my deserts, But because methinks it fits. Dearest treasure of my thought, And yet wert thou to be bought, With my life, thou wert not dear. Secret comfort of my mind, Doubt no longer to be kind. But be so, and so appear. Give me love for love again, Let our loves be clear and plain, Heaven is fairest, when it is clearest.

Lest in clouds and in deferring, We resemble Seamen erring, Farthest off when we are nearest. Thus with numbers interchanged, William's Muse and mine have ranged, Verse and Journy both are spent W- 8. Authorities often feared that female sexual desires would become uncontrollable, endangering the sanctity of marriage and the social order in general. They experimented with different kinds of laws, institutions and regulations to manage women perceived as promiscuous.

Controlling female sexuality also helped define the boundaries of race during the imperial era. Since sexual desire has often been seen as an uncontrollable emotion, it becomes a metaphor for various kinds of social and political disorder. Generalised anxiety about social change often focused on the figure of the immoral woman.

As this chapter will demonstrate, the modern era, from the eighteenth century onwards, represented a significant shift in experiences of and attitudes towards female sexuality. The first section concerns the eighteenth century. The long-held attitudes that female sexual desire was voracious and female sexual pleasure necessary for conception were challenged by new medical developments.

A new image of the unmarried mother as a victim of male lust began to compete with the older image of the disorderly woman as the new institutions failed to control illegitimacy and prostitution. Sexuality became a political issue in the controversies that led up to the French Revolution, as libertinism and sentiment contended in philosophical debates. By the early nineteenth century, another revolution became more apparent: the demographic revolution. Beginning in the mid-eighteenth century, fertility, both illegitimate and legitimate, began to explode, but contemporary awareness of this problem only began around Working-class and middle-class women experienced sexuality in very different ways, for sexual morality differed dramatically by class.

But it was prostitution, not lesbianism, that excited the concerns of nineteenth-century governments, who instituted a new system of registration and regulation in an effort to control venereal disease. The last section begins in the s, when sex radicals and sexologists also began to pioneer new ways of thinking about sex. After the First World War, sexual freedom became emblematic of modernity, of the new culture of consumption, but this freedom also alarmed many people, especially as the birth rate dropped dramatically.

After the Second World War, continuing government control over sexuality was challenged by new liberation movements, such as feminism, the gay and lesbian movement and the New Left. Sexual desire is not a natural, biological drive, unchanging through history; rather, the diverse emotions which constitute sexual desire are stimulated, created and constructed by social formations.

Feminist psychoanalytic theory, adopting the insights of Freud while rejecting his misogynist and biologistic elements, promised to explore fantasy, desire and the unconscious. However, psychoanalytic theory is very difficult to apply historically because the formation of sexual attachments, and adult desires and fantasies, varied so much in different time periods.

Activists against pornography such as Sheila Jeffreys sought precedents among the social-purity campaigners of the late nineteenth century, who warned of the dangers of untrammelled male desire. Historians have also debated the chronology of changes in attitudes towards female sexuality. For instance, in the pre-modern period, it was popularly thought that female genitals were just like those of males, but turned inside out.

This was the central argument of one of the most influential books on sexuality in the past fifteen years, Making Sex. In this book, Thomas W. Laqueur argues that this idea derived from the ancient Greek scientist Galen. In diagrams, Galenic tracts compared the testicles to the ovaries, and the vagina to the penis, as if it were inverted. As a result, the masculine and feminine sex drives were seen as comparable in strength. Furthermore, the female orgasm was seen as necessary for conception. He believed that the sperm contained a homunculus, or germ of the human being, so that the mother merely incubated the foetus.

Victorians had long been thought of as embodying sexual repression. However, some historians believed this was a myth that they needed to refute. Peter Gay, for instance, argued that behind her prudish exterior the Victorian woman really enjoyed sex, but he concentrated on a few middle-class women and men. In contrast, he insisted that the Victorian era did not witness a repression of sex but a proliferation of discourses about sexuality. Foucault focused on medical and psychiatric discourses that constructed sexuality as a form of knowledge and as an identity.

Psychoanalytic theory, for instance, could be seen as just another discourse shaped by the cultural maelstrom of late nineteenth-century Vienna. However, when analysing discourses, historians must ask who read them and what impact they had. The writings of doctors and sexologists that constituted the Foucauldian discourse were not available to the general public, especially women and working-class people, and popular sexual writings in England tended to advocate sexual restraint rather than pleasure.

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Feminists have also criticised Foucault for ignoring gender in his theories. Hera Cook has recently asserted that, in England at least, late Victorian people were sexually repressed. In mid-Victorian England, middle-class men could indulge their sexual desires with prostitutes, but middle-class women were warned to constrain their desires. Instead, she demonstrates how social constraints, family upbringing, the censorship of sexual information, the lack of good birth-control methods and the advocacy of sexual self-control all constructed a negative attitude towards sexuality.

In part, this was because he rejected the idea of any overarching structure of domination, such as male power; instead, he regarded discourses of sexuality as dispersed among multiple nodes of power — not only the state, but also institutions of civil society, such as philanthropy. Judith Walkowitz more successfully applied a gender analysis to this theory in her study of the regulation of prostitution in nineteenth-century England. Only the female prostitute became the subject of discourses and regulation; male soldiers, their customers, escaped the disciplinary apparatus.

Foucault was also interested in the way discourses constructed modern identities. Before the late nineteenth century, he claimed, authorities punished sinful or criminal sexual acts, but they did not regard the people who committed them as distinct personality types. The new sexological discourses invented the modern sexual identities of heterosexual or homosexual, regarding sexual desires as revealing the innermost truth about our beings. Foucault therefore made a great conceptual leap forwards by differentiating between sexual acts and sexual identities.

He profoundly changed the history of homosexuality. Rather than searching for gay or lesbian people in the past, historians began to insist that gay or lesbian identities did not exist before the modern period; instead, acts and desires were much more fluid. Working independently, lesbian historians such as Lillian Faderman came to similar conclusions, arguing that in the eighteenth and nineteenth century, women engaged in passionate romantic friendships without suspicion, only coming under attack when sexologists promulgated the lesbian stereotype.

Other historians have suggested that the distinction between acts and identities cannot be mapped onto a pre-modern—modern divide. Sexual identities did exist before the modern period, such as the effeminate sodomite or the prostitute; these people were not just seen as committing certain sexual acts, rather, their sexual behaviour created a social identity. However, identity in the pre-modern period was not the same as our modern notion of an innermost essence, but more likely to be defined by social relationships. Furthermore, normative identities incorporate the deviant.

Yet we still need concepts to understand those sexual practices and desires which did not constitute identities, but which could not be reduced to acts, which were not seen as normative yet were not utterly deviant. Similarly, we need to understand discourses that were not openly articulated, that may have been only half-understood or euphemistic. For instance, abortionists advertised in nineteenth-century newspapers that they could bring on blocked menstrual periods; women whispered to neighbours what this meant.

Peering through the murky twilight can also serve as a metaphor for the difficulties historians face in tracing past sexual attitudes and experiences. Heterosexual sex is the easiest to trace when it produces babies, for the birth rate can be traced through parish registers and censuses, which indicate legitimate and illegitimate fertility rates.

Demographic information is very valuable in uncovering past sexual behaviour, because it surveys a large number of lower-class people whose lives went unrecorded by diaries and letters; it can also refute common stereotypes. However, demographic statistics cannot explain the reasons for such behaviour. Demographers attempted to correlate changes in sexual behaviour with other measurable phenomena, such as urbanisation or industrialisation.

Although hardship clearly had an effect on illegitimacy rates, demographers often found that cultural factors could outweigh economic structures. Court records about rape also hint at the prevalence of sexual violence, although most assaults were never reported. Since lesbianism was not illegal in most countries, however, we cannot take advantage of the rich court records about sodomy available to historians of male homosexuality. Changing laws about sexual practices often reflect wider political concerns about social order and racial boundaries, as in Nazi Germany or European colonies.

Some letters and diaries exist, but most people did not write about sex in such ways, and we do not know how typical those who did were. By the nineteenth century, doctors and sexologists began to survey sexual attitudes, sometimes using a statistical and sometimes a case-study approach. Historians influenced by Foucault have often seen these case studies as shaped by the discourses of sexologists, who persuaded people to adopt new sexual identities, but more recently, other historians have argued that sexologists responded to letters and interviews with their subjects as they developed their theories.

Social attitudes about female sexuality are much easier to explore, since desire was such a central theme in literature, medicine, morality and politics, but historians always have to remember that these sources present discourses about sexuality, rather than describing experiences. Sexual attitudes of the eighteenth century are difficult to grasp, because sexual morality was so controversial and debated; no consensus could be reached. Popular attitudes towards sex contrasted with those of the authorities, who tried in vain to stem a growing tide of extramarital sex.

Older ideas about female desire persisted and in fact were popularised while new medical knowledge challenged them. Sexual libertinism contributed to a revolutionary ferment, but a backlash lurked on the horizon. Both Catholic and Protestant churches had tried to impose, or reimpose, a strict sexual morality in the seventeenth century. The counter-reformation Catholic church portrayed women as sexual temptresses, with their low-cut gowns and sparkling ornaments.

It imposed strict controls over marriage and viewed sexual desire as the ultimate sin. Institutional reformatories confined women accused of prostitution, or other sexual delinquencies. Originating with the counter-reformation, nuns usually ran these institutions and aimed to reform prostitutes through a strict regime of privation, regimentation, prayer and work.

These reformatories also disciplined wayward women, not just prostitutes. Especially in France, parents or husbands could send recalcitrant daughters and adulterous wives to these reformatories. In England, the first Magdalen Hospital was established in London in , motivated by philanthropic and evangelical sentiments that sinners could be reclaimed for a religious path.

The Magdalen Hospital also received girls of genteel birth who had been seduced or had given birth outside of marriage. While these institutions aimed to return prostitutes to a virtuous life of labour and even marriage, thus recognising that unchastity was not a permanent stigma, they trained prostitutes in those very overcrowded, low-paid trades that forced women to sell sex to make ends meet — laundry, service and needlework.

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Thirty-seven to 40 per cent of the women in the Magdalen Hospital and the similar London Lock Asylum failed to reform and left the asylum, sometimes returning to prostitution. By the mid-eighteenth century, as the cities of London and Paris grew exponentially, it became obvious that prostitution would expand far beyond the capacities of these institutions to contain it. In London, Societies for the Suppression of Vice periodically demanded that constables sweep the streets and arrest prostitutes, but prostitution itself remained legal. In Paris, the police concentrated on spying on and harassing prostitutes through arrests or extortion.

Authorities also attempted to control unmarried mothers. In France, church and state united with propertied patriarchs to ensure that well-born young women did not run off with unsuitable husbands or fall pregnant before marriage. Rape laws focused on the fear that men would abduct heiresses, and the courts treated sexual violence as a crime against husbands and fathers, rather than against the women themselves. In Lutheran Strasbourg, unmarried mothers could be imprisoned. In England and Scotland, unwed mothers faced humiliating public punishments, such as standing in front of the church in sackcloth and ashes.

But by the mid-eighteenth century, some of these sanctions began to erode. By , Swedish pregnant girls no longer had to experience the humiliation of public purification, as ministers would take their repentance in the privacy of their studies. For instance, in Frederick the Great abolished all shaming punishments for unmarried mothers, seeing them as victims of seduction. Both legitimate and illegitimate fertility increased dramatically from to in many parts of Europe.

Historians generally agree that the population grew because more people were marrying, and more people were having sex outside of marriage; death rates declined, but not dramatically enough to explain population growth. By the late eighteenth century, a significant sector of the British population began to marry in their early twenties instead of their late twenties.

As a result, the woman of could bear two or even three more children than her great grandmother. In contrast, the average age of marriage rose in France, Tuscany and parts of Germany. Young couples often engaged in night-courting, caressing each other as they cuddled, fully-clothed, in the evening. If they were betrothed, they often believed they could go ahead and have sex; as a result, many brides were pregnant upon marriage. The religious insistence on the sinfulness of desire contrasted with the prevalent popular attitude that female sexual pleasure was vigorous and necessary. These works presented the purpose of marriage as procreation and presented sexual pleasure, for both men and women, as a means to that end.

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But these texts debated whether Galen was correct to assert that male and female genitals were homologous. These advice books urged men to confide in their wives and to caress them in order to incite their desires and ensure conception. The popular idea that women could not conceive without orgasm also had negative consequences for rape victims who became pregnant, since their accusations of assault were never believed. According to a very old stereotype, men were seen as more rational and able to control their sexuality.

These popular medical books also envisioned the possibility that women might desire other women. Lesbianism, therefore, was not a recognised identity but an anomaly, seen only hazily, as in the twilight. The intellectual challenges of the Enlightenment also changed attitudes towards sexuality. Medical ideas about female desire began to change over the course of the eighteenth century, as Thomas Laqueur points out. Physiologists rejected the old idea that male and female sexual organs were homologous. Turning to empirical examination of bodies rather than relying on the old authorities, they began to doubt that women had to experience sexual pleasure to conceive.

But cultural assumptions influenced these medical texts more than experiments did. Although medical texts had always regarded male and female bodies as different, new authorities began to argue that sex determined female physiology in every way, from the genitals to the skeleton to the brain. They debated whether inflamed ovaries caused sexual hysteria, or whether excessive sexual desire, or even reading erotic literature, could enlarge the ovaries. While medical men had begun to ignore the importance of female pleasure, the materialist philosophers celebrated it.

The new materialist philosophy of the Enlightenment critiqued the old metaphysical and religious view of society. Since censors prohibited both radical philosophy and pornography, publishers in the underground book trade sometimes combined the two. Historians have debated whether this philosophical pornography empowered female desire or exploited women. By explicitly describing coitus interruptus withdrawal , the novel explained how she could enjoy sex without fear. Pornographic texts sometimes portrayed women initiating each other into sex.

However, lesbian sexual desire was usually seen as a sideline to the main heterosexual event. And as we have seen, it was not particularly innovative to portray female sexual desire as active, given the traditional link between female insatiability and irrationality. In his novel La Religieuse , greedy parents confined their daughter Suzanne in a convent. She became the prey of a wickedly lustful mother superior who seduced her, indulging her lesbian desires freely because Suzanne was so innocent she did not understand these caresses. However, when these works were translated into English, either the translator cut out the most explicit sex scenes between women, or the books were suppressed by censorship.

Nonetheless, arcane allusions to female—female eroticism surfaced in erudite yet libidinous poems written for a very elite English market. The sexual cynicism apparent in this pornography was also reflected in aristocratic culture. Among the elite, men openly took mistresses and frequented courtesans. Great ladies might take lovers once they had provided their husbands with a male heir, but the double standard mandated much greater discretion and risk. Georgiana, Duchess of Devonshire, for instance, had to go into exile abroad when she bore a child by her lover.

In France, husbands could force wives accused of adultery into a convent for two years, and even for life. A few aristocratic women engaged in lesbian relationships, but as a result, vicious rumours discredited their reputations. Anne Damer, a sculptress involved in the political circle of the Duchess of Devonshire, was also mocked for her allegedly Sapphic tastes and accused of interfering with the relationship of an actress and her lover.

But scandalous memoirs alleged that she belonged to Sectes des Anandrynes, tribades who renounced the company of men and preferred that of their own sex. For instance, radical pamphlets depicted Marie Antoinette as an incestuous mother and indiscriminate lover of both men and women. Jean-Jacques Rousseau, most influentially, resented the power that the women of the salons held over culture and regarded them as artificial and decadent.

By the later eighteenth century, Rousseau pioneered a new move towards sensibility that challenged aristocratic and philosophical cynicism about sex. In his Confessions , he passionately depicted his inner sexual life as failing to conform to conventions, but all the more worthy of examination; for instance, he candidly admitted to masochistic desires and to abandoning his illegitimate children at the foundling hospital.

Yet Rousseau realised that if sexual desires were indulged freely, society would be reduced to a state of nature. To resolve this problem, he laid the burden of controlling desires onto women. While men could explore their genuine emotions, women must be trained into social constraints. Rousseau advised women to dress to allure men with bows and ribbons and to gesture coquettishly. She criticised the conventional double standard and the hypocrisy of valuing chastity as the only female virtue, but in her published writings she tended to regard sexual passion as dangerous and irrational.

Yet she fell prey to sexual passion herself, bearing a child out of wedlock to her lover Gilbert Imlay and only marrying her lover William Godwin after becoming pregnant.

She and Godwin, in somewhat different ways, developed an idea that true passion could become refined as a meeting of minds as well as bodies and should not be marked by the sanction of artificial institutions such as church and state. During the French Revolution, Olympe de Gouges also asserted female sexual rights by claiming that women should be able to claim maintenance from the fathers of their illegitimate children.

The French revolutionaries did make some changes advantageous to women, declaring that they would free them from the despotism of husbands and fathers and from the tyranny of arranged marriages, for instance, by allowing divorce. However, these laws changed only principle, not practice, and authorities rarely prosecuted men for rape.

The Jacobins rejected feminism and sent Olympe de Gouges to the scaffold. By , the backlash against sexual radicalism was in full force as the middle class defined itself in part through sexual morality. In France, the Civil Code of reversed the revolutionary legitimation of divorce and imposed extremely harsh penalties on women who violated the sexual double standard. Women could not sue the fathers of their illegitimate children.

And husbands could prosecute adulterous wives — and their lovers — in the courts and have them condemned to prison for two years. If a husband caught his wife and lover in the act, in flagrante delicto , he could kill them and escape punishment for murder. Many such cases were brought to the courts, although more often, the husband would simply have his wife arrested and not go through the full prosecution.

They depicted her as undermining the very foundations of marriage and, in doing so, endangering all social institutions with the threat of revolution. The middle class increasingly contrasted its virtuous morality with perceived aristocratic libertinism. This contrast reached its apogee in the trial of Queen Caroline in King George IV put his wife on trial for adultery, even though he had abandoned her twenty-five years before and notoriously frolicked with his mistresses.

For many, Caroline became a symbol of middle-class purity in contrast to the corrupt oppressive aristocracy. However, when evidence that she had taken a lover surfaced, middle-class public opinion turned against her. Nevertheless, many working-class people still supported her, because they thought she had every right to take a lover after being deserted by her husband. Working-class morality was very different than that of the middle class in the early nineteenth century.

As rising illegitimacy rates became more apparent, sexual morality became a marker of class status. Among working people, rates of premarital pregnancy were very high, ranging from 30 to 50 per cent in parts of rural England, Sweden, Vienna and the Netherlands. At first, historians attributed lowered marriage ages and rising illegitimacy to industrialisation and urbanisation. Edward Shorter argues that by allowing young people to earn wages instead of having to wait to inherit property, they could enjoy sex before marriage and marry younger. Earning wages in factories, for instance, enabled young women to enjoy sex, reflecting liberated working-class sexual attitudes.

But this argument has been refuted on several grounds. Illegitimacy rates were high among domestic servants, the most traditional female occupation, and generally lower among factory girls, who had more social support and slightly higher wages. Demographers demonstrate that illegitimacy rose in many areas long before industrialisation. Some rural areas had much higher rates of illegitimacy than urban industrial ones such as north-east Scotland, the Austrian Alps, Hungary and parts of Germany.

Rural areas of Austria experienced extremely high illegitimacy, up to Historians therefore now concentrate on proletarianisation, not industrialisation alone, as the cause of the decrease in marriage age and the rise of illegitimacy. Looking at life stories and ethnological accounts of village customs as well as statistics, Louise Tilly and Joan Scott argue that changes associated with the growth of a capitalist economy disrupted the regulation of desire long practised by communities.

Unmarried motherhood was very onerous, and low female wages forced women to marry young. Illegitimate children faced higher risk of dying as infants or children, especially in the first half of the nineteenth century, indicating that their mothers lacked family support and insufficient income. As Tilly and Scott argued, when young women moved to the cities in search of work, they followed traditional rural customs of sex after a promise of marriage. Early modern customs had allowed for non-reproductive sexual play before marriage, including elaborate courting customs such as bundling or night courtship.

If a young man refused to marry a woman he courted, he would be pressured or shunned by the family and community. But with proletarianisation, hard times brought unemployment which prevented young men from fulfilling their promises or forced them to delay marriage; they could easily move to another city in search of work and never see their pregnant sweetheart again. However, isolated and far from home, pregnant women could not draw upon the social support of family or village to force their sweethearts to follow through with their promises. But illegitimacy was not always tied to social isolation.

In Louvain, Belgium, many unmarried mothers worked as lace-makers and continued to live with their parents. A significant minority of women also became pregnant after being sexually coerced. While it may be thought that these women would claim rape in order to make themselves look more respectable, foundling hospital officials were unlikely to believe a woman who said she had been raped by a stranger; their ideal candidate had been seduced after a promise of marriage.

Some of these women were assaulted by their fellow servants. Despite the stereotype of the immoral factory workers, servants were more vulnerable to sexual assault than factory workers; servants could be assaulted as they worked alone in an empty house, while factory girls laboured together and could defend each other. Historians debate whether sexual violence was an expression of male dominance or an aberration of individual men. Anne-Marie Sohn tries to tie violent and sexual behaviour much more tightly to specific moments. For instance, in the early nineteenth century, there were many cases of young unmarried male agricultural workers sexually attacking isolated women working in the fields.

Later in the nineteenth century, when improving economic conditions allowed such men to marry, these rapes declined in number. She therefore sees rape as the result of sexual frustration. I have argued that sexual violence reflected a division in masculine mores in early nineteenth-century Britain. Many working-class men espoused a restrained, self-controlled, chivalrous masculinity. But others, especially among certain occupations of artisans, celebrated a libertine, even misogynous masculinity, singing songs that celebrated violent seductions and assaults on women.

The question of sexual violence is also complicated by the question of language. This difficulty was caused by the fact that nineteenth-century society did not find the distinction between seduction and force to be very important. Rape was seen as an attack on the property of a husband or father. Whether or not a woman consented, she was damaged property. Many unmarried mothers actually cohabited with the fathers of their children. In Paris, there was one consensual union for every four married couples, and the illegitimacy rate was 30 per cent.

Historians initially argued that this represented an alternative morality, a defiance of the bourgeois order. Indeed, many working-class people seem to have regarded cohabitation and informal divorces as socially acceptable. However, other historians now see cohabitation as a symptom of poverty.

Many cohabiting couples would have preferred to marry. In Vienna, up to a third of working-class people could never hope to earn enough to marry and support a family. Some cohabited instead, while others, unable to even afford a room together, had to be content with brief visits in rooms rented by the hour. The experiences of middle-class women differed dramatically from working-class women in the early and middle nineteenth century.

In proper French society, bourgeois women were supposed to appear very modest, with downcast eyes, and girls were not supposed to know anything about sex. Of course, there were exceptions in bohemian life, such as the novelist George Eliot Mary Ann Evans , but they were not accepted in bourgeois society. Middle-class women had little access to knowledge about sex, for the authorities quickly censored any works that gave medical information about sex to a popular audience.

Dr William Acton asserted that most women were not normally troubled with sexual feelings and had intercourse only to oblige their husbands. Acton was extremely influential and his works went through many editions. Many other doctors believed that most women experienced sexual pleasure, even if their desire was less than that of men. Dr Auguste Debay argued in that it was important for men to satisfy their wives in bed with sensitivity and skill.

However, female desire could be seen as dangerous. The increasing prevalence of the idea that women did not need to experience orgasm in order to conceive also made female sexual pleasure seem less important. Even doctors who acknowledged the importance of the clitoris regarded women as sexually passive. Of course, women did not necessarily need explicit information from doctors to enjoy sex.

One survey of infertile women found 68 per cent experienced sexual pleasure in marriage, and 79 per cent said they desired sex. But sexual pleasure was not the same as orgasm: one survey found that under 40 per cent of German women born between and ever had an orgasm.

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