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He considered that act to be the most repugnant of all his presidential acts. During those critical years after the Brown decision, this former five-star World War II general did not wage war against segregation. And he remains as much to blame as anyone for its persistence, for the lives lost fighting against it. War propagandists framed the U. From the war spoils, the U.
11th President of the United States (1845-1849)
President Polk led the fight against those politicians and activists pressing to ban slavery in the new southwestern territories. This lifelong slaveholder was angrily hated by antislavery Americans as the leader of the western marching "Slave Power. He looked away as White slaveholders and non-slaveholders danced around the legal protections for Mexican landowners inscribed in the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, and went about illegally stealing the lands of the new group of Mexican American citizens. President Polk started a forgetful history of the Mexican southwest--and the long history of racism against Mexicans inside and outside of the border--a history of racism that is now fueling the campaign of Donald Trump.
President Wilson never turned his back on the racist ideas he produced as a Princeton political scientist. President Wilson oversaw the re-segregation of the federal government. Black federal workers were fired , and those that remained faced separate and unequal workspaces, lunchrooms, and bathrooms. He refused to appoint Black ambassadors to Haiti and the Dominican Republic, as was custom.
Professor Wilson and then President Wilson unapologetically backed what he called the "great Ku Klux Klan," and championed the Klan's violent disenfranchisement of southern African Americans in the late 19th century. President Wilson began the brutal two-decade U. And possibly most egregiously, at the Versailles Convention settling World War I in , President Wilson effectively killed Japan's proposal for a treaty recognizing racial equality, thus sustaining the life of European colonialism.
Neither could the storied life of activity on the racist front of his uncle Theodore Roosevelt save him. FDR's racism was even more impactful that his uncle, Teddy. President Roosevelt's executive order in that ended up rounding up and forcing more than , Japanese Americans into prisons during World War II is arguably the most racist executive order in American history He thankfully spared German and Italian Americans from the military prisons, but that showed his racism.
President Roosevelt's snub of the U. Farmers and domestics--southern Blacks' primary vocations--were excluded from the New Deal and federal relief was locally administered, satisfying southern segregationists. Northern segregationists were also satisfied by the housing discrimination in New Deal initiatives, like coding Black neighborhoods as unsuitable for the new mortgages. As such, Black communities remained buried in the Great Depression long after the s while these New Deal policies combined with the GI Bill exploded the size of the White middle class.
President Jefferson had emerged as the preeminent American authority on Black inferiority. His racist ideas "The blacks His Notes were useful for powerful Americans rationalizing slavery after the American Revolution. In the book, Jefferson also offered the most popular race relations solution of the 19th century: the freeing, "civilizing," and colonizing of all Blacks back to "barbaric" Africa. Then again, a new evil replaced the old. The measure closed the door on the nation's legal participation in the international slave trade in , and flung open the door on the domestic slave trade.
Large slaveholders like President Jefferson supported this law since it increased the demand and value of their captives. They started deliberately "breeding" enslaved Africans to supply the demand of planters rushing into the Louisiana territory, which President Jefferson purchased from Napoleon in Weeks before he was elected, candidate Monroe watched and supported the formation of the American Colonization Society. Presiding over the first meeting, House Speaker Henry Clay tasked the organization with ridding "our country of a useless and pernicious, if not dangerous" population, and redeeming Africa "from ignorance and barbarism.
This first American colony in Africa was later named "Liberia," and its capital was named "Monrovia. But it was another namesake that really thrust President Monroe onto this list. Several U.
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This Monroe Doctrine was as racist and devastating to Latin American communities abroad as the doctrine of Manifest Destiny was to indigenous communities at home. President Reagan attracted voters through racially coded appeals that allowed them to avoid admitting they were attracted by the racist appeals. He stood at the head of a reactionary movement that undid some of the material gains of civil rights and Black power activists. During President Reagan's first year in office, the median income of Black families declined by 5. Then in , President Reagan announced his War on Drugs at an inauspicious time: when drug use was declining.
President Reagan surely did not mobilize any of his forces to stop the CIA-back Contra rebels of Nicaragua from smuggling cocaine into the country to fund their operations. But he surely did mobilize his forces to draw media attention to their spreading of crack cocaine in The media blitz handed his slumbering War on Drugs an intense media high in That fall, he signed "with great pleasure" the Anti-Drug Abuse Act, which established minimum sentencing for drug crimes and led to the mass incarceration of Black and Brown drug offenders over the next few decades.
Like his campaign strategies, President Reagan took President Nixon's racist drug war to a new level, and the mass incarceration of Black and Brown bodies accelerated under the Bush times two and Clinton administrations, especially after Clinton's crime bill. White drug offenders, consuming and dealing drugs at similar or greater rates, remained disproportionately free. Reagan stands on this list as the representative of all these mass incarcerating presidents in the late 20th century. Treasury is planning on putting on the back of Harriett Tubman is the second most racist president of all-time.
Ironically, he attracted the same demographic groups less educated, less affluent White men that Trump is attracting these days. Jackson stepped into the U. Jacksonian Democrats, as historians call them, amassed a winning coalition of southern enslavers, White working people, and recent European immigrants who regularly rioted against abolitionists, indigenous and Black communities, and civil rights activists before and after the Civil War.
When the mass mailings of antislavery tracts captured national attention in , President Jackson called on Congress to pass a law prohibiting "under severe penalties, the circulation And yet, it was his Indian removal policies that were the most devastating of all on the lives of Native Americans and African Americans. Beginning with the Indian Removal Act of , President Jackson forced several Native Americans nations to relocate from their ancestral homelands in the Southeastern United States to areas west of the Mississippi River--all to make way for those enslaved Africans being forcibly hauled into the Deep South.
James Knox Polk (1795-1849)
When President Johnson issued his Reconstruction proclamations about a month later on May 29, , he deflated the high hopes of civil rights activists. President Johnson offered amnesty, property rights, and voting rights to all but the highest Confederate officials most of whom he pardoned a year later.
He later ordered the return of land to pardoned Confederates, null and voided those wartime orders that granted Blacks forty acres and a mule, and removed many of the Black troops from the South. He then went on to serve as Governor of Tennessee. He was the leading contender for the Democratic nomination. Clay, who had the Whig vote, and Martin Van Buren, who had been expected to win the Democratic nomination for President, both were very vocal against the annexation of Texas.
Polk was very assertive in his belief that Texas and Oregon should join the United States. This idea proved good to the public since the North wanted to see Oregon become occupied and the South wanted to see Texas re-annexed. The lesser-known James Polk, defeated Clay in the election, which was a great shock to the public. He gained the title "the Dark Horse" when he became the 11th American President.
He served one term from to Just as he promised in his campaign slogan, "all of Texas and all of Oregon," Texas was admitted as the 28th state on December 29, , and Oregon's boundaries were established through a treaty with Great Britain the following year during Polk's administration. Oregon's treaty did not come easily and was taken with great caution. Early on, extremists shouted "Fifty-four forty or fight!
Polk did not want to start a war with Great Britain and realized it was unlikely all of Oregon would be taken without a full war. Fortunately, Britain also had the same reservations against war. Instead, they compromised allowing Britain to extend the Canadian border along the 49th parallel from the Rockies to the Pacific.
Unfortunately, the British minister initially declined. When Polk reasserted that America wanted the entire area, he settled for his original assertion with the exception of the southern tip of Vancouver Island. Peace was found, and the treaty was officially signed in California was one of the more difficult territories to gain control of. Mexican leaders declined since they did not feel that they could give half the country and remain in power; therefore, Polk sent General Zachary Taylor to the area on the Rio Grande.
Mexican troops felt this was an aggressive act. They, in turn, attacked Taylor's men, which caused Congress to declare war against Mexico, beginning the Mexican War. America repeatedly won battles and eventually occupied Mexico City. This treaty would be known as the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo gwah-dah-loop-ay ee-dahl-go , and brought the end of the Mexican-American War on February 2, It ended at the city of Guadalupe Hidalgo.
The treaty was named after the city, not a person. The city was just north of the capital and was named after the Virgin of Guadalupe, more famously known as the Virgin Mary. In , when the war ended, Mexico released all claims to what is now Texas, California, Nevada, along with a portion of what is now Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, and Wyoming. Once the United States gained control of California, gold was soon found there. Eventually, after California became a state, it became known as the "Golden State. Polk was extremely successful in expanding the United States territory, which may have increased the already bitter quarrel between the North and the South over rights of slavery.
They turned him down. When it came time to run again, Polk declined due to his health. He died three months after he left office in of cholera.
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Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so. James K. Angela Michelle Schultz more. Official White House Portrait. Fifty-Four Forty or Fight! Who Was Guadalupe Hidalgo? Fun Facts He was the first president to have his photo taken. During college, he had perfect attendance. In the 14 years in Congress, he was only absent once. Three states became states while he was in office: Texas, Iowa, and Wisconsin.
At the time, he was the first to be elected under the age of 50 and the youngest to die of natural causes. He was the first to decline renomination. Had the shortest retirement after being in office, only three months. When he was 17 years old, he had a surgery to have urinary bladder stones removed.
Since anesthesia was not yet invented, he had the surgery while awake. Anesthesia was invented while he was in office. It is believed this may have made him infertile, as he and his wife never had any children of their own.
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