Development and Sustainability: India in a Global Perspective

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Your request has successfully been submitted. Our expert will get in contact with you shortly. Sustainable development: Power supply Transportation Infrastructure Medical treatment. Sustainable development for urban areas Any Indian urban agglomeration needs an efficient infrastructure and smart city planning that will meet the demands of a growing population. Providing access to healthcare and drinking water, a reliable power supply and public transportation are some of the key elements for sustainable urban development. Power supply for sustainable development A sustainable power supply can be achieved with energy efficient power plants and renewables like wind energy.

Power supply. Safer public transportation Metro trains, suburban railways and other public transportation systems play a major role in the sustainable development of cities.

Renewable Energies for Sustainable Development

Urban infrastructure Green and smart buildings are important elements of sustainable urban infrastructure development and help ensure comfort and security. Accessible medical treatment for all Access to affordable medical treatment is vital for livable cities and rural areas alike. Medical treatment. Sustainable cities roadshow Siemens showcases latest technologies for sustainable urban development at the multicity Indo-German Urban Mela Tour.

Sustainable cities roadshow. News Products and solutions Publications Videos. Previous 1 of 2. Pranav Patil Siemens India Send a message. Innovative airport for sustainable development The new Bangalore International Airport has been built in just 33 months. It is the first Indian airport to be built on a greenfield site in partnership with private companies. Trust through proximity Ten value-based products for the Indian market. Increased sophistication of financial markets alongwith global integrity is expected to facilitate productivity enhancing reallocation of resources.

The revealed fragility of the same market however, indicates that the same feature of the market may generate undesirable volatility subjecting the economy and through contagion effect other segments of the source economy and other economies to sudden collapse instead of yielding better allocation of financial risks. Seemingly, self- generating cycles in the inherently unstable globalized financial market belie the decoupling hypothesis and pose such destabilizing crises as inevitable yet uncontrollable through policy interventions.

GIS in Sustainable Urban Planning and Management (Open Access): A Global Perspective

This autonomous nature of endogenously determined volatility and fluctuations shifts the locus of search for triggers for crises from the real sector to a financial one. The situation becomes complicated with the possibility of a discontinuity or even divergence between the developments in the real and financial economy or in view of lag in terms of adjustment in real variables.

This renders hitherto used analytical categories for studying financial market dynamics inadequate and calls for bringing in new ones. Sarkar, Chakrabarti and Sen Chapter 4 brought home the need for such reformulations of existing models while analyzing high-frequency financial time- series data in the Indian context to unearth certain regularities in the dynamics of otherwise chaotic financial market. The non-linear character observed in Indian stock market calls for attending to the internal structure of an economy in view of the important role played by robustness of institutions in reducing the dislocating impact of crisis as indicated by Mandal and Kar.

An important fallout of global integration by increased flow of goods and services as well as greater mobility of factors especially capital, as has been put forward by many researchers, has been reflected in increasing income-inequality.

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This has given rise to intense debate on the interrelationship between the two sets of phenomena. In addition to other important internal factors, relative income inequality of an economy may be, specifically influenced via the channel of trade- led technological change and consequent wage-differentials arising from change in skill-composition of labour demand. The existing theorization and empirical analyses may prove inadequate in establishing the link between these two.

Bhattacharya Chapter 5 has attempted to develop a theoretical argument linking globalization and change in relative income inequality potentially working through wage differentials, and to design an empirical strategy to isolate the effect of globalization on the latter using reliable data subsequently. Bhaumik and Rashid Chapter 6 examined the changing production performance, particularly the improvement in productivity recorded by Indian agriculture - so crucial to poverty eradication and inclusive growth, and noticed a deterioration in the same during the era of economic reforms.

The underlying problem of sustainability was brought home by the fact that this decline was all pervasive including the states that had earlier experienced success from JEPE, 2 3 , S. The paper identified the limits in the structural as well as infrastructural bottlenecks, i.

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Specifically, non-institutionalized market and market imperfections, rather than absence of markets, characterize the agricultural sector of many developing countries like India. Insights developing from the experience of indirect penetration of competitive forces into agriculture contrast with the expectation that the latter will act as the distortion-free signaling mechanism guiding resource allocation in a trade-liberalized economy.

On the contrary, it may intensify existing market imperfections Deshpande, Chapter 7. When the inability to generate higher net income in agriculture culminating in agrarian distress originates from existing structural rigidities and market imperfections, introduction of forces of competition may not cure the problem unless there are specific institutional re-organizations.

Preponderance of smallholding, interlocked input, output and credit markets, pre- dominance of exploitative intermediary interests partly resulting from inadequate and inefficiently administered public procurement programs and associated bureaucratic procedural complications - all add to this rigidity.

Some kind of stickiness in adjustment reflect a lack of preparedness and may partly explain the absence of stability in growth and the evidence of limited benefits from price system. Price system alone in such a situation will not help attaining even operational and allocative efficiency, leave alone the achievement of a broad-based and environmentally sustainable growth resulting in creation of wealth and improvement in human well-being. Put otherwise, in the absence of institutionalized market, the sector would not respond optimally either to market- centric reforms or to public intervention strategy.

Attempts to uncover the impact of globalization on growth experience and the latter's robustness rest on sound analysis of performance in different streams of economic activity. This will require formulation of proper estimation categories and devising appropriate methods of evaluation. Bandyopadhyay and Majumder Chapter 10 provided a comprehensive review of both non-parametric and parametric methods of performance evaluation and demonstrated the same by comparing evaluation by both approaches in the context of Indian garments sector.

Increasing dominance of competitive norms and withdrawal of government provisioning of public goods have often led to some kind of collaboration between public and private service-providers. Adoption of public-private partnership alternatively known as PPP model has become relatively common in many aspects of public good provisioning including infrastructure development projects where government has limited financial and technical capability to meet the increasing demand for greater quantum of such goods. Such collaborations are expected to release pressure on government budget, bringing in appropriate technology and skilled worker, and better management of the economy coupled with integration with global financial market.

Regulatory authority has to step in however, as markets alone cannot strike a balance between commercial notion of efficiency and the social demand for equity and sustainable development.

Safer public transportation

Thus, success of these projects in relaxing the delivery constraint crucially hinges as much on the ability of the regulatory authority to write and implement as complete contracts as possible as on the quality of private players in collaboration Chatterjee and Banerjee, Chapter 9. Importance of regulation in maximizing social welfare was highlighted in the context of Indian telecommunication industry also, a sector characterized by fast development of technology under condition of uncertainty Datta, Sikdar and Chatterjee, Chapter Contrary to the neoliberal understanding that a minimalist state without involvement in the sphere of production and technology development coupled with competition herald quality JEPE, 2 3 , S.

Public firms are posited in their framework as a sustainable development instrument and as one playing a crucial role in the maximization of social welfare. The regulatory structure in this setting, not only encourages exploring the potentialities of state-run corporatized firms, it is also sensitive to the inherent disadvantages of relatively risk-averse public firms. Mallick Chapter 12 found the evidence of increased concentration, rather than increased competition in the structure of global crude steel industry as an outcome of intensified global integration.

How the emergent non-competitive structure interacts with regulatory regimes influencing the conduct of individual firms in order to ensure realization of efficiency gains under globalization can form an interesting line of enquiry here. It is reasoned that a shift toward higher export-orientation and greater global connectivity are expected to stimulate technical progress, innovation and economic growth while utilizing natural and environmental resources more efficiently. These benefits can be realized if the liberalizing economy enjoys a strong regulatory structure protecting environment and labour.

Trade liberalization in an economy with many market distortions on the contrary can yield especially adverse outcomes and perhaps few benefits. Especially, lax regulations may give rise to pseudo-comparative advantage where the developing economy attracts mainly the industries with high order of exploitation with respect to labour and greater pollution content.

An industry even displaying spectacular success on the export front may thrive, in reality, on its structural weaknesses. There are arguments contradicting this position based on the observation that in most of the sectors these two factors are one among many considerations while deciding on the industrial location of a global industry cost of protecting environment constituting a minor component of the total cost.

With an empirical investigation of the Indian gems and jewelry industry in the post-liberalization period, Chattopadhyay and Banerjee Chapter 15 however found support for the former line of reasoning. The study found that the fabulous improvement in the sector's export performance was not accompanied with neither any temporal improvement in productivity growth and technical progress nor by any longer-lasting capability-enhancing formal-informal link-up.

The success rested on violation of the relevant regulatory regimes. Competitiveness derived from these sources however, are easily contested by economies with similar or more severe weaknesses and the gains may be short- lived. The other striking implication of these findings is that informal sector may not wither away with greater global integration and increased sway of competition following the opening up expected by the early development theorists or is unlikely to formalize as advocated by the ILO.

Evidence of continued coexistence of informal sector alongside growing formal is a pointer to such a possibility. In fact, this fits well with an alternative formulation Bhattacharya, Bhattacharya and Sanyal, Chapter 14 , where global capitalist expansion in the formal continually creates the preconditions of existence and reproduction of the informal, instead of obliterating it from the modern economic landscape.

Sub-dividing the informal sector into two mutually exclusive categories viz. Liberalization, globalization and privatization are considered to accompany feminization of the work force. Policy literature also has increasingly focused on agriculture's role as an engine of inclusive development as the prevailing growth regime has faced formidable challenges in both India and from outside. Has global integration and resultant growth dynamics been able to generate sufficient momentum as to sweep away the existing structural, economic and social exclusions associated with pre-modern and pre-capitalist order?

Could it empower those previously excluded? Did the forces of competition buttress the prevailing exclusion or transformed the latter into a different form? Ghosh Chapter 8 as well as Dutta and Husain Chapter 13 raised these questions in two different contexts. The former put under scrutiny Indian agricultural growth and asked if the relevant development strategy increased women's opportunity to participate in and contribute to the growth process. Here again, dogged presence of certain structural constraints and institutional rigidity were observed to stall women's empowerment through participation in the growth process.

Institutional factors seemed relevant for women's changing employment profile in information technology IT and related sectors - the industry most intimately linked up with the process of globalization. Has global integration led to fall in the proportional presence of exploitative works and enhancement of status in family?

Minor Global Awareness. Sustainable Development in a Global Perspective

Notwithstanding the ongoing debates around it, Dutta and Hussain noticed an easing of patriarchal disciplining of the Indian family accompanying women's journey in pursuit of carving out their own space. In the process of striking a balance between work and family, they evidently exert choice and schedule consciously different life-events spanning over both these spaces and the compromise between the two is both-way.

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Reason and motivation behind women's entry into labour market however differ across socio-economic strata, they differ between women contemplating entry into the high-end IT sector and those left to take up agricultural activities mostly for subsistence. Accordingly, implications of liberalized stance in recruitment process in terms of women's status in household and overall social position also probably varied in these two contexts.

Bhattacharya, Banerjee and Basu Chapter 16 proposed a comprehensive measure for empowerment. Logical fallout of conceptualization of empowerment as capability enhancement is the urge to quantify empowerment. Application of the method offered to analyze real-life data corroborates the earlier finding that empowerment status at the individual level is quite sensitive to different contextual factors.

Thus, effectiveness of any uniform inducement to lowering exclusion may not work symmetrically across all sections of potential beneficiaries undermining any one-size-fits-all approach to deal with complex and nuanced phenomenon such as globalization. Exclusion may also take the back-door entry where measures meant to include end up further excluding some.

India in a Global Perspective

As Sarkhel Chapter 18 delineated the working of an inclusiveness-enhancing workfare program in a situation threatened with vulnerability to natural disasters to establish that the program outreach may miss the poorest or the most disadvantaged. One cannot over-emphasize the importance of contextual features in deciding the success or failure of the program when we note that diversity with respect to these characteristics renders the target population environmentally inhabiting the space and facing identical problems of sustainability heterogeneous.

Any welfare program or prescription of market- based measures to reduce vulnerability is likely to leave certain disadvantaged groups still excluded if the program-designing does not consider the unobserved heterogeneity explicitly. This demand garners support from the quarter of capital, which finds reliance on any such measures including public provisioning of health, education or social security benefits rather than on the trickle down mechanism misplaced as well as wasteful. Instead of relying exclusively on public domain, it argues, private provisioning of public goods will improve the service quality while easing pressure on the government finance as in the PPP model.

The emphasis on inclusive growth and redistributive policies by development thinkers and policy planners alike on the contrary, derives from the recognition of limited success of market-driven growth and trickle down process to deliver expected benefits to the excluded. Bhattacharya Chapter 19 offered a theoretical formulation where the rich benefits disproportionately from growth and an endogenously determined social segregation is followed by a situation when the rich organizes provisioning of the same service although of a superior quality and excludable.

Under certain assumptions, withdrawal of rich from the domain of public provisioning - working via both demand and supply-based channels - may rather lower the service quality for the poor and can act as the basis of further exclusion for the poor. An important intervention to counter exclusion has been in the form of microcredit programs, which is viewed as a panacea for a number of problems: poverty eradication, various structural and economics exclusions and associated problem of sustainability, and social injustice and so on. Examining how far the program lived up to these expectations while reviewing the construct of the program from the stage of formulation over to implementation becomes a logical necessity.

Banerjee Chapter 17 has presented an analytical review of the current Indian experience on the functioning of the microcredit approach to entrepreneurship development and poverty alleviation, while underscoring more of a poverty-managing role of the instrument. The current mode of functioning may go some distance even in addressing the issue of sustainability, how far it can help the system getting rid of the problems of poverty and long-term sustainability remains an open question.

With the environmental and ecological dimensions gaining prominence in the overarching problem of sustainability, search for appropriate institutional arrangements and exploring the attitude of members toward crucial institutions and environmental practices become imperative.

Ray and Bhattacharya's Chapter 20 contribution is in terms of developing upon novel methodological insights into the assessment of abstract categories e. Stressing on the limits of existing ideas and methods - better suited to contextualize human behaviour in the framework of rational choice - the authors draw attention to the importance of accounting for stakeholders' subjectivity grounded in their social identity and social status to form a comprehensive understanding the role human behaviour plays in sustaining a particular social way of life.

Centrality of reorganizing urban space to resolve the tension between multiple urban worlds has impressed upon the development planners with advent of globalization. We can identify two broad sets of urban worlds coexisting: one housing the migrants, squatters and informal livelihoods putting limitless pressure on the urban infrastructure and limited public provisioning there, and the other as a cosmopolitan site of operating the global value chains.

Development and Sustainability: India in a Global Perspective Development and Sustainability: India in a Global Perspective
Development and Sustainability: India in a Global Perspective Development and Sustainability: India in a Global Perspective
Development and Sustainability: India in a Global Perspective Development and Sustainability: India in a Global Perspective
Development and Sustainability: India in a Global Perspective Development and Sustainability: India in a Global Perspective
Development and Sustainability: India in a Global Perspective Development and Sustainability: India in a Global Perspective
Development and Sustainability: India in a Global Perspective Development and Sustainability: India in a Global Perspective

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