Indeed, many innovations in humanitarian practice already reflect military roots often unrecognised by the aid community. This suggests that, far from a hypothetical source of lesson-learning, humanitarian innovation has historically been intrinsically linked to military research, development and learning. The last half-century has seen seminal ICT breakthroughs, enabled through research conducted or directly funded by militaries. These include internet, email, GPS and interactive maps later commercially adapted, such as Google Streetview. Remote sensing and geospatial technology is another area of humanitarian innovation whose military lineage is clearly evident, particularly in the emergence of civilian unmanned aerial vehicles UAVs.
UAVs — commonly referred to as drones — have strong roots in technologies originally developed for military use, yet are rapidly becoming a highly visible, and often controversial, tool of humanitarian surveillance and observation, including crisis mapping and search and rescue operations.
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It is clear that militaries hold tremendous experience in the research, development and use of UAVs, and will remain an important source of innovation and good practice around this emerging technology for the foreseeable future. Moreover, while the nascent humanitarian and human rights remote- sensing community lacks standard methodologies for analysing the large amounts of geospatial data produced by these new remote sensing technologies, these processes have already been refined through decades of tested military intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance ISR doctrine.
Achkar, I. Baker and B. Strategic planning Military approaches to strategic planning and knowledge management draw on large-scale information networks, strong institutional support for strategic planning and proven processes and models for setting clear planning goals.
Weiss, Humanitarian Business Cambridge: Polity, , p. Kent and J. Although rarely acknowledged, several ubiquitous humanitarian planning approaches reflect military origins, most notably the logical framework and matrix, which originated as a s US military planning framework. After-Action Reviews AARs and mission-to-task have likewise developed from their US Army origins into a widely adopted knowledge management and accountability tool in humanitarian practice.
Additional areas Further work is required to fully map and prioritise areas for deeper consideration. Synergies to explore include military approaches to simulation and gaming. Militaries are also extremely creative in rebuilding disrupted supply chains and solving logistical problems in conflict and natural disasters. The diffusion of products and processes from military to humanitarian medicine also has a long history, particularly in trauma care. In public health, military research has contributed to key innovations in understanding of immunology, parasitology and vaccine development, most recently during the West Africa Ebola response.
Along with opportunities for lesson-learning from military innovation, there is an equally important need to critically engage with the risks this may pose to humanitarian principles and practice. Many of these principle-based issues are concretised in the evolving application of specific military- derived ICT innovations in humanitarian assistance.
Raymond and B. Due in part to such concerns, important work has begun on professional principle-based frameworks for guiding humanitarian innovation.
It remains important, however, that this emerging work which tends to focus predominantly on private sector ICT partners also considers militaries as central brokers of ICT assets, capabilities and data for humanitarian use. The use of drones, especially in conflict settings, has raised particular concerns regarding privacy and neutrality during data collection, and the related need for transparency and informed consent for the communities drones are observing.
Sandvik and K. More work from a political economy lens is needed in investigating the motivations, perceptions, incentives and challenges involved in firms providing commercial off-the-shelf technologies to both military and humanitarian markets. It is important to separate tangible risks to humanitarian principles from general unease about certain technologies with military origins, of which there are countless examples in everyday use. This point remains open to further debate between humanitarian drone proponents and their critics, and could certainly benefit from greater historical clarity.
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Too little is understood about the risks that the diffusion of military innovation may pose to humanitarian practice and principles. Yet critical perspectives do not need to compete with work to identify possible areas of synergy and exchange.
An informed, considered debate should pursue these research streams, balancing an investigation of the potential benefits of military innovations with critical dialogue on the associated risks. Bringing together research on the opportunities, challenges and implications of innovation diffusion and exchange between the military and humanitarian communities paves the way for engaging both sets of actors in collaborative dialogue and debate.
As an initial step, case study analysis of military dual- use innovations and approaches to innovation management would be of immediate value. There is also potential for military and humanitarian innovation experts to directly engage with each other through active co-learning. Military practitioners might be invited to contribute insights and expertise around innovation management, or be consulted for their technical experience with military product and process innovations adapted to the humanitarian context.
Existing platforms of civil—military engagement should be used to facilitate the input of military actors into learning around humanitarian innovation.
They are therefore natural vehicles for hosting conversations around innovation diffusion and ex- change between militaries and humanitarians. Such conversations could initially take the form of workshops, seminars and conferences. Deep analysis about market status , enterprise competition pattern, advantages and disadvantages of enterprise products, industry development trends , regional industrial layout characteristics and macroeconomic policies, industrial policy has also be included. From raw materials to downstream buyers of this industry will be analyzed scientifically, the feature of product circulation and sales channel will be presented as well.
In a word, this report will help you to establish a panorama of industrial development and characteristics of the Flaxseed Extract market.
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Market Segment by Manufacturers, this report covers:. Based on types, the Flaxseed Extract market is primarily split into:. Food Grade Pharmaceutical Grade. Based on applications, the market covers:.
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